According to statistics, it is a burn that occupies one of the leading places in the ranking of the most common domestic injuries, and most of them are burns of children under the age of 14 years. The cause of injury becomes careless handling of hot water, the first aid in such a disaster should come immediately, which will reduce serious consequences and reduce pain.
Not everyone knows what to do in case of a burn, what actions to take, and what should we refrain from? How to determine the degree of impact? How to bandage and how to wipe? Should I grease the affected place with fat or, on the contrary, try to cool as much as possible? Incompetent and untimely actions can lead to serious consequences that will further aggravate the victim’s condition, and therefore read carefully below.
How to determine the degree of burn?
First aid and the procedure to be taken after an injury may differ, depending on the degree of burn. As is clear, after boiling water or hot steam gets on the skin, it begins to blush, blister, curl, and in some cases even slazit.
- Grade 1 is accompanied by redness, swelling of the skin and pain. There is no particular cause for concern.
- Grade 2 - after a few minutes blisters appear.
- Grade 3 - sufficiently extensive skin lesions, which can be accompanied by serious injuries to nerve endings and tissues, may have the appearance of a deep dark red wound.
- Grade 4 - an even stronger damage to the tissues, while painful shock can lead to loss of consciousness. And at the third and at the fourth degree hospitalization is urgently required and, possibly, tissue transplantation.
First aid for burns with hot water
Depending on the location of the affected area, it is necessary to carefully release the skin to the outside, that is, to remove wet clothes, it is recommended to show special efficiency if it is made of synthetic fabrics. It should be removed as carefully as possible, especially if blisters are already beginning to appear on the surface of the skin - it is important to prevent them from being stripped and burst.
An infection can easily get into the wound through damaged blisters, which can lead to the most serious consequences. If the clothes do not give in, it is better to cut it, but do not allow it to stick to the skin.
Further, the damaged area is recommended to substitute under cold water. Naturally, if it is a finger or a part of a hand, then this can be done simply; you can cope with the rest of the body if you directly lower them into a container with cold water.
Depending on the degree of damage, the site of the burn should be kept under cold water for 10-20 minutes. Cold water will relieve a little pain syndrome, as well as suspend the spread of the lesion. Burns can also be blown with cold air or packed with ice packs. If the pain is strong enough, then you can take an anesthetic.
After cold water, the affected area is dried and then bandaged with a sterile dressing to avoid contamination. To do this, it is enough to apply a light bandage that will not put pressure on the burned area, especially if it has already formed blisters.
By the way, in pharmacies special non-stick bandages are sold, which are specifically designed for burns. The affected area is best kept above heart level, so you can reduce swelling and speed wound healing.
Further, if necessary, it is necessary to call an ambulance, since in case of severe burns, self-healing can be dangerous to your health.
The most serious are burns with oil or those with an area larger than the size of the victim’s palm. It is also necessary to contact a specialist if a person or parts of the body such as the genitals, perineum, and also if the child is under 5 years old, a pregnant woman, or an elderly person aged 60 or over is injured.
How to treat?
In the case of a burn of the first degree, the affected area can be cleaned with an alcohol solution or vodka, but it is not recommended to use brilliant green or iodine, since additional thermal effects can be applied.
By the way, fat, sour cream or butter are also not the best assistants in first aid, as they have the property of fairly fast forming of a film that covers the wound and prevents heat from escaping.
In case of burns of the first two degrees, first-aid treatment with special ointments, such as “Panthenol” or “Olazol”, is allowed. These drugs improve the healing process and relieve pain syndromes.
Special anti-burn gel napkins that can be purchased at a pharmacy can also be effective. With their help, localization of the affected area, anesthesia and antimicrobial action. Treat burns and reduce pain can be with the help of folk remedies, which almost everyone has at home.
For example, freshly grated potatoes help a lot. To do this, a few potatoes must be peeled, washed, and then grated on a fine grater and put gruel to the burned place. The second option - aloe juice, they need to thoroughly soak a bandage that you will put on the burn.
Another way - green or black tea. It must be brewed and then cooled to 15 °. Wash the affected areas thoroughly with tea leaves and then apply a bandage, also soaked in tea.
Treatment of burns can be carried out using a decoction based on oak bark. To prepare it, you need 40 g of chopped oak bark and pour a glass of boiling water over it. Then, on a low heat, boil for five minutes, cool and strain through gauze or a small strainer.
With the help of the resulting broth, you can handle the place of the burn, as well as use it for lotions. Also, ordinary cabbage leaves help well - you need to take a couple of pieces, rinse, and then apply for a few hours on the affected skin area.
A good and fairly well-known folk remedy in such situations is propolis ointment and sea buckthorn oil, after the timely application of which, the burn passes much faster and there are practically no scars.
It is easy to prepare it: take 10 g of propolis and grate. Next, 100 g of vaseline boil and mix with powdered propolis, cool the resulting ointment.
Burn classification, first aid for thermal burns.
There are four degrees of burns:
Burns I degree.
This category includes burns resulting from contact with red-hot (up to 50-70 degrees) objects and liquids (water, oil, steam, iron). Since the lesion area affects only the superficial layers of the skin, first-degree burns are the least dangerous. With such a degree of tissue damage, redness, swelling, severe burning and painful symptoms are observed. In this situation, it is necessary to cool the burn area, treat with Panthenol. With this degree of burns, folk remedies can be used in the treatment. Usually after a few days it all goes away, the skin begins to peel off, after healing, the pigmented areas remain. If the damaged surface of the skin due to the burn is more than 25%, there is a serious injury, therefore, before the arrival of the doctor, you must provide first aid, following the steps described above.
Burns II degree.
Such a burn is diagnosed by contact of the skin with a temperature of 70-100 degrees. This should include any kind of burns of the respiratory tract. In addition to extensive reddening of the skin immediately or several hours later, blisters or blisters filled with serous fluid appear. After the breakthrough (independent, not mechanical) blister, the reddening of the skin remains. Usually, recovery occurs within about two weeks, but this is only if infection does not occur.
In case of damages of a similar degree with ointments or oils it is impossible to lubricate the burn area, as well as resort to traditional medicine recipes. Despite the pronounced effect of reducing the manifestation of pain, these tools are an excellent nutrient medium for the development of bacteria and infections, which further complicates the situation, interfering with the recovery processes. When receiving burns, the victim should be called an ambulance, but for now the help will go, apply a dry and necessarily sterile dry dressing. The healing process can take up to fourteen days. Any damage to the airways due to burns is attributed to second-degree burns.
Burns III and IV degree.
Burns of the third and fourth degree are expressed by severe destruction of the tissues of the skin and muscles, with large areas of damage, deaths of the injured are often observed. The victims with such a degree have the so-called burn shock, when at first they experience excruciating and unbearable pain, and then completely lose the ability to perceive or feel anything. At the same time, pressure decreases, pulse weakens. This happens with burns with oil, steam, boiling water of the second degree with a lesion of 30% or with third-degree burns of 10% of the body surface. Scab and deep ulcers remain in the areas of damage, and after final healing - scars. There are cases of disability.
At the fourth degree, charring of the skin is observed, the skin, cellulose, bones and muscles are destroyed. Pain victims may not experience (which often happens), because the nerve endings are damaged. As a result, doctors are often forced to amputate limbs. If extensive burns are observed, the victim should be urgently hospitalized. In no case can not independently try to remove adhering clothing from the skin.
If the victim is unable to move independently and has to be moved, it is necessary to ensure the protection of the damaged parts of the body with any surfaces. In this situation, an ambulance is immediately called, the patient is given a painkiller and is provided with abundant drinking.
What to do when burned with boiling water?
- Remove clothing that came under boiling water.
- Determine the degree of skin damage (palm man - 1%). For injuries in excess of 10% (ten palms) should consult a doctor.
- Treat the injured surface with Panthenol.
- If the burn has fallen on the arm, it must be kept raised to reduce swelling.
- In case of a first or second degree burn, sterile cloth moistened with cold water should be applied to the damaged areas. Change every few minutes (no more than twenty minutes and only while maintaining the integrity of the skin).
- If blisters appear, do not attempt to open them.
Your actions in case of burn steam.
- Cooling of the damaged surface after preliminary removal of clothing.
- In case of damage over 10% of the body, consult a doctor.
- Do not put oil on the burn site, open blisters or touch them.
What to do when burn oil?
- Hold the area, which fell on the oil in cold water until complete cooling.
- If the burned area is more than 1% with oil or the oil has got into the eyes, it is necessary to urgently call an ambulance, and until then apply a sterile wet dressing. Analgesics can be used previously (over the eyelids): a solution of novocaine (4% - 5%), lidocaine, albucide (10% - 30%), chloramphenicol (0.2%).
Your actions in case of a burn with an iron.
- Apply oil or glycerin to the affected area.
- Apply finely worn beets, you can cabbage, change every ten minutes.
- Cool the injured area with water and sprinkle with soda.
- You can lubricate the burn raw chicken egg.
If the burn caused blisters, it is better to abandon the methods described above and consult a doctor.
Treatment of chemical burns.
Chemical burns are treated with regard to damaging substances. Of course, first aid is to call an ambulance. Then the victim is removed or torn from the victim at the site of injury, the substance is removed from the skin. To do this, for twenty to thirty minutes the surface is washed with a strong stream of cold water. If the burns were caused by quicklime, it is impossible to cool the surface of the body, because when in contact with water, the lime has the opposite effect, burning even more. If the damaging substance is sulfuric acid, it is first removed with a dry cloth (first wearing protective gloves), and only then the area is washed with cold water. After that, apply a dry dressing on the damaged surface.
Drugs in such cases should be prescribed only by doctors, since the reaction of damaging substances with medicinal preparations can be the most unpredictable. If a substance is known that provoked a burn, for example, acid, the wound can be pre-treated with a two-percent solution of baking soda, if it is caustic alkali, then the wound should be treated with water with added boric acid or a few drops of citric acid. After that, be sure to impose a dry and clean bandage.
Any healing means should be prescribed exclusively by a doctor. Typically, such burns are treated for a very long time, and the therapy can be internal and external. To alleviate the condition of the victim, accelerate healing processes, cooling and moisturizing the skin at the site of injury, apply aloe vera (impose). Vitamin E is also used on diseased areas for the purpose of healing and resorption of scars. For internal treatment use vitamins E in capsules, C, A, B.
Folk remedies for burns.
As previously noted, traditional medicine is relevant only in cases of first-degree burns, that is, with minor damage to the skin.
You can apply compresses of raw potatoes, pumpkins or carrots. Any of the vegetables is rubbed through the grater, applied to the affected area and fixed with a sterile dressing. This bandage should be changed every ten to fifteen minutes.
Very effectively reduce the pain and redness of the lotion from the broth of coltsfoot, wild rose, oak bark. Brew, according to the instructions on the box, moisten gauze and apply for fifteen minutes, then replace the dressing.
Dairy products perfectly relieve pain. Three times a day for half an hour, you can make lotions with yogurt or sour cream.
Honey, due to its high bactericidal qualities, has long been used in traditional medicine to treat minor burns, reduce pain and accelerate regeneration.
Be attentive and vigilant when handling hot appliances, liquids and chemicals, and in case of burns follow our advice.
Types of burns
- Thermal burns. Such injuries are often the result of careless handling of fire, steam or hot water. Thermal burns are also commonly referred to as frostbite, which occurs due to the effect of critically low temperatures on the body.
- Chemical burns. Strong solutions of acids, caustic alkalis, potassium permanganate, iodine and other substances that in a concentrated form are a serious danger to human health and life can cause such injuries.
- Electric burns. Tissue damage in this case is a consequence of the impact on the body of electrical discharges.
- Radiation burns. Injury caused by ionizing, ultraviolet and infrared radiation. Radiation burns are manifested not only by external skin lesions, but also by the presence of general malaise.
- First degree burns. Only the upper layers of the skin are affected. As a rule, redness appears on the skin, which is accompanied by a sensation of heat. If first aid for burns at home was rendered correctly, then within 5 days such an injury passes, and a new epithelium appears on the site of the affected skin. Most often burns of the first degree are sunburns.
- Second degree burns. It represents damage to the skin, characteristic signs of which is the formation of bubbles on the affected areas. On the surface of the epidermis are formed the so-called blisters - bubbles with serous fluid. Most often, such injuries are diagnosed by scalding of the skin with steam or boiling water.
- Third degree burns. Its distinctive feature is the impossibility of complete recovery of the skin, since scars remain in any case at the site of impact. The strength of the lesion reaches subcutaneous fat.
- The fourth degree of burns. These are the most serious and dangerous burns that penetrate deep into the tissues under the epithelium and can even reach the bone. Such injuries are characterized by the death of muscle and connective tissue, as well as their charring. Most often it is thermal burns, obtained from an open flame, electrical and chemical burns.
The degree of burns and first aid for them are inextricably linked. И если ожоги 1-ой и 2-ой степени возможно вылечить в домашних условиях, то при ожогах 3-ей и 4-ой степени без помощи квалифицированного специалиста просто не обойтись.
Если были получены термические ожоги и обморожения, первая помощь должна быть оказана незамедлительно. Thus, the victim of suspected frostbite should be delivered to a warm room. It is very important to prevent rapid warming of the damaged areas, for which it is recommended to apply heat-insulating gauze and cotton to the supercooled areas. The victim needs to provide plenty of drink and call a doctor.
The first aid in case of burns with chemicals may be different and depends on the reagent that caused the skin lesion.
When receiving a burn with concentrated acids (with the exception of sulfuric acid), the burn surface should be washed for 20 minutes with a stream of cold water. A good result is obtained by washing the affected area with a 3% soda solution (per 200 ml of water and 1 tsp. Soda).
Alkali burns should also be thoroughly washed, and then treated with 2% citric acid solution. A sterile dressing is required on the burned area after treatment.
Burns with quicklime should never be rinsed with water; lime removal and further treatment of the affected skin area is done with oil. After removing all existing lime pieces, the wound should be closed with a gauze bandage.
Assistance with burns caused by phosphorus has certain features. The fact is that phosphorus has the ability to flash in air, as a result of which the burn becomes a combined chemical and thermal. It is recommended to immerse the burnt area in water and remove pieces of phosphorus with cotton wool or a stick under water. After that, the damaged surface must be treated with 5% solution of copper sulphate and covered with a sterile dry dressing. In this type of injury, it is strictly forbidden to use ointments or fat, due to the fact that they cause the absorption of phosphorus in the skin.
First aid for burns at home reduces, above all, to the elimination of the source of electrical injury with the obligatory observance of personal safety. Next, the damaged areas must be closed with a bandage.
If a slight injury was received, it is enough to soothe the victim and give him warm tea. If a person has lost consciousness, you must:
- Put it in a comfortable position.
- In order to release the airways turn his head to the side.
- Relax your clothes.
- Monitor breathing and pulse.
Symptoms of radiation burns usually appear about 6 hours after irradiation and include severe pain, photophobia, edema, and hyperemia. In this case, first aid for burns at home should be provided without delay.
In case of severe pain, the anesthetic should be taken (Tempalgin, Ketanov, Analgin). Antihistamines can help partially eliminate inflammation and swelling. In case of severe photophobia, one should beware of bright light, for which it is recommended to darken the room. To avoid secondary infection of the eye, it is advisable to use antibacterial drops ("Tobrex", "Cyclomed" or "Taufon").
The most common among the radiation is sunburn. With such a skin lesion, you should immediately take a cool shower. To restore the water balance in the body of the victim, it should be watered as much as possible with liquid (juice, milk, tea).
In case of severe sunburns, it is recommended to lubricate the affected area of the skin with a solution of calendula (for its preparation it is necessary to dilute the calendula tincture in cool water in 1:10) or boric vaseline. If the victim has a fever, he should be given an antipyretic drug (Aspirin, for example).
First aid for sunburn can be based on popular recipes. So, quickly relieve pain and irritation will help rubbing the affected area with kefir or sour cream. A remedy made on the basis of boiled potatoes has a good effect. To do this, boiled potatoes must be peeled and mixed with sour cream to form a mass that resembles an ointment in consistency. Apply the mixture for 30 minutes on the burned area, and then rinse with water. This tool is an excellent first aid for a child with a burn, because babies love to frolic in the sun so much, without thinking that soft skin is so vulnerable to external influences.The remedy for the quick healing of burns is also a preparation made on the basis of eggs. To do this, boil 5 eggs hard-boiled, remove yolks from them and fry them in a pan until they are black in color. The mixture is cooled and rubbed her burned area.
First aid for burns
Thermal or sunburn we often get in the spring and summer. If you are burned, you should treat the skin as soon as possible to stop the process of damage at the initial stage and avoid serious complications. Doctors recommend the use of a spray containing dexpanthenol, which has a healing and anti-inflammatory effect, to treat the burn surface. Such a component is part of the European-quality medicinal product - PanthenolSpray. Experts note that the drug prevents the development of inflammation, quickly relieves burning, redness and other unpleasant signs of burn. "PanthenolSprey" is an original drug, tested over the years and is very popular, so it has many analogues in the pharmacy with very similar packaging. Most of these analogues are registered as cosmetic products under a simplified procedure that does not require clinical trials, therefore the composition of such products is not always safe. In some cases, it includes parabens - potentially dangerous substances that can provoke the growth of tumors. Therefore, when choosing a spray from burns, it is very important not to make a mistake. Pay attention to the composition, the country of production and packaging - the original product is produced in Europe and has a characteristic smiley next to the name on the package.
How not to treat burns
Proper first aid for burns categorically prohibits the use of oil-based ointments and other fat-containing products (with the exception of chemical burns of quicklime). This action will only worsen the condition, and health workers will have to subsequently remove the oily film from the damaged surface, thereby delivering additional torment to the injured.
Also, you can not treat the skin with cologne and alcohol-containing lotions. The burned place should not be covered with a plaster, as this will impede the ingress of air. It is forbidden to open the bubbles, because this way the infection can spread.Burns are a common skin trauma that thousands of people get every day. Proper and timely first aid for burns will help to restore the affected skin as quickly as possible and in a short time.
Burns: first aid for burns in children
√ With lungs household burns (boiling water, steam, touching the hot surface), the first thing to do is to hold the affected area of the body over running cold water. If this is the baby's face, then abundantly moisten the burned area with cold water from the palm of your hand over the sink or bath. This should be done for a long time, at least 10 minutes, until the skin is sufficiently cooled.
This is the easiest way to relieve pain very quickly, remove redness, prevent blisters or wounds. If possible, after the water, you can attach ice, wrapped in a towel made of natural fabric.
Most often, children are burnt with boiling water or touching hot surfaces. In such cases, there are still many good proven treatments. So, the instruction for moms (and not only).
Boiling water burn: what to do at home
These home remedies are suitable for both kids and adults:
♦ As soon as such a misfortune happened, you should grate the peeled potatoes, and apply the gruel to the burn site. Change every 10-15 minutes for an hour, or even two (depending on the degree of damage, the stronger the burn, the longer it will take to apply and change more often). This is a quick treatment for minor burns that relieves pain and prevents wounds.
♦ The following good remedy was checked on yourself and children: as soon as someone from the household got burned, immediately lightly beat the chicken egg white with a fork and apply it to the affected area. Initially, the furnace will be strong, but after 1-2 minutes the pain will subside. This method is good because even with severe burns with boiling water, blisters and wounds, as a rule, do not remain.
♦ If you have a boil over a burn, you don’t know what to do at home (panic, etc.), then think about the usual flour that you probably have in the kitchen. Sprinkle flour burned place, and the pain subsides instantly. And in order to avoid blistering or peeling skin, you need to grease the burn abundantly with a thick layer and hold it longer.
♦ Do not forget about the simple soap. If you immediately rub a place of a small burn with a piece of wet soap, the pain and redness will disappear very quickly. But only gray or brown soap is suitable for this; modern-day white synthetic substitutes are completely inappropriate.
♦ What else is in every home? Surely, there is always a beet. So, with burns, gruel of grated beets also helps a lot. You just need to put on the place of the burn with freshly ground flesh. No burn marks will be left.
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♦ Also "works" and pumpkin. Grate fresh pulp and apply to the affected skin. This treatment is particularly suitable for children with ordinary household burns, because it quickly relieves pain and cools the skin. By the way, pumpkin warm compresses can cure children’s cough, and with the introduction of dishes from this vegetable in the menu, you can cope with children's constipation.
♦ There is such a method: pill “Penicillin” into a powder and sprinkle the burn. There will be no pain or blisters. Pills are simply pounded: put a pill in one spoon (hold the spoon in your hand), and press another on the pill and rub it in a circular motion. It all takes a few seconds.
♦ At a friend's little daughter, she scalded her shoulders with boiling water (knocked over a cup of tea). Grandmother tore off several aloe twigs, cut off the thorns, kneaded and put to the burned places. They did it 3-4 times a night, tied the plates with scarlet elastic bandage for the night, and the next day everything was in order.
♦ You can also smear the burn with natural honey. Immediately stops the stove and blisters can be avoided.
♦ And this simple way is suitable only for adults. For burns, cuts and non-healing wounds will help pharmacy tincture of echinacea. Just soak the tincture strip with tincture and apply to the affected area. To do several times a day.
Such simple methods help to cope with minor burns. But there are cases of serious and ordinary methods do not help. Of course, for severe burns you need to go to the hospital. However, even after treatment, many still have unhealed wounds, ulcers, or oozing cracks. And these people are discharged! Months, and even years of torment, begin - bandaging, smearing, injections of antibiotics, etc. But one can be healed, you just need to find the right folk medicine.
Oak bark for the treatment of burnt areas of the body
2 tablespoons of oak bark grind into powder and pour a glass of boiling water. Put in a water bath and cook until the liquid is half evaporated. Strain and mix with 50 g fresh butter. Lubricate burns several times a day. You can make bandages with ointment.
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Melt in a water bath 3 tbsp. spoons of sunflower oil, the same amount of honey and natural wax (you can take a candle). Stir the ointment and cool. Then add raw chicken egg protein and mix thoroughly. Lubricate the burn often, at least 7 times a day.
We all know that the skin, burned by sunlight, is well treated with kefir, sour cream, whey and fresh curd. However, aloe is a good helper: in case of severe sunburns, cut the aloe twigs, twist into a meat grinder and squeeze the juice. Liberally lubricate burnt places. You can wet the bandage in the juice and apply.
Let these tips never come in handy, but I still hope that with boiling water burns, you now know what to do at home. And not only burns, but also wounds, cuts, cracks in the skin and even boils can be cured with the help of these recipes. And ointments can cope even with trophic ulcers.
And now listen to a beautiful song performed by singer Enii. This Irish singer is singing in a new age style. Well, very beautiful!
With wishes of good, Irina Lyrnetskaya