Rudbeckia (Rudbeckia) is a plant that belongs to the genus Herbaceous and the Astrovye family. There are one-year, biennial and perennial representatives of this culture. In total there are about 40 species. Homeland is North America, where Rudbeckia and today is found in large numbers in the prairies. When the first settlers appeared in North America, they called the flower "black-eyed Susanna", after the appearance of the Europeans, it was called the "sun hat".
The plant got its current name in honor of the Swiss botanists - the father and son Rudbekov. Today, rudbeckia is common in many countries in Europe and Africa as a decorative perennial or annual crop.
Important! Many people mistakenly believe that rudbeckia and echinacea are one and the same plant. They look alike, and the same continent is home. But there are differences. It is also worth understanding that Echinacea has a number of useful medicinal properties, and information about the similar benefits of orebeckia is an unsubstantiated myth.
The big advantage of Rudbeckia is that even before flowering the bush of this plant is of high decorative value. The height of the bushes depends on the variety and can be from 0.5 to 2.5 meters. Some species even reach 3 meters. Stems are straight or branched.
Whole leaves, from 5 to 20 cm. In the lower part of the plant they are located on the cuttings, and in the upper part - sessile. Depending on the variety, they can be different: oval, whole, pinnately dissected, ovoid, pinnately separate.
Inflorescences are represented by baskets (about 15 cm), which are framed by petals. Their color can be completely different, ranging from the traditional yellow and ending with purple-black.
The height of the bushes depends on the variety
After flowering, fruits are formed in the form of an elongated achene, which in some cases is framed by a small crown. The seeds are dark gray and small in size.
On a note. Brilliant seeds of Rudbeckia remain viable for 2-3 years.
The main types of plants
Rudbeckia is divided into annual (biennial) plant and perennial. Each of them is represented by a large number of species. Some of them are found in natural conditions, others are intended for cultivation in home gardens or in pots at home. The most common and popular varieties should be considered.
Rudbeckia beautiful or beautiful
Perennial that reaches 50-60 cm in height, with oblong, slightly rounded leaves. Toothed edges with irregularities. The flowers have a bright orange color. Mostly found in the wet soils of North America.
Perennial, which reaches a height of 60 cm, while it is distinguished by whole, narrow lanceolate leaves. The inflorescence reaches 9 cm and consists of tubular flowers of orange or dark red color. In nature, there are varieties of Rudbeckia Hirt, Goldstar, Goldsturm, which have golden flower petals and a brown heart.
This is a small dwarf plant that does not exceed a height of 30 cm. Most often, rudbeckia dwarf is used for growing in curb beds, in indoor pots or on balconies and loggias. The color of flowers (diameter - up to 10 cm) can be varied: from yellow to purple-black.
Rudbeckia Dwarf species
Terry or hairy rudbeckia
A separate type of orebeckia, which combines many varieties. Coloring can be varied. There are white, blue, red, yellow rudbeckia. Shoots up to 1 meter. The plant lives no more than 2 years and breeds in flowers. This species is distinguished by its presence on the foliage and shoots of a hard nap.
Inflorescences baskets copiously cover the bushes during flowering. The diameter of the flowers is about 10 cm.
This is a large group that combines hybrids of various varieties of garden plants (hairy, glossy and spreading). Stems hard, leafy, reach a height of 70 cm. The upper leaves sit on the stem, the lower leaves grow on the petioles. Rudbeckia hybrid differs in rather large inflorescences whose diameter reaches 19 cm. Petals of flowers resemble tongues in shape, most often colored yellow, sometimes there are yellow-brown representatives. The fruit is a small seed, in which dark shiny black seeds are located.
Interesting fact. In one gram of approximately 1800 pieces, and germination remains up to 3 years.
The best varieties of Rudbeckia perennial
Today, there are a huge number of varieties of this plant. Each of them is worthy of attention, but it is worth highlighting the most popular ones:
- Rudbeckia Cappuccino is a representative hairy species. Distinguished cappuccino straight, slightly branched stem, on which the inflorescences are formed about 8 cm. Tubular flowers are painted in coffee-red, and language flowers have an orange-yellow tint. Differs in abundant flowering until late autumn. Planting and care of Rudbeckia Cappuccino is not much different from other representatives of similar colors.
- Variety Marmalade belongs to the Asteraceae family. During the season a huge number of inflorescences are formed. The flowers are very large, platinum leaf as if hovering over the core and densely covered with hairs.
- Rudbeckia shaggy Maro is a perennial herb that has dark red flowers. Differs relatively early flowering from July to October.
- Rudbeckia Yantar. Medium-sized plant, up to 60 cm, which is characterized by good resistance to drought. The flowers are painted in golden yellow color. The diameter of the inflorescence is about 10 cm.
- Rudbeckia Golden Ball is very common for a long time. This is a perennial plant that reaches a height of 2.5 meters. Flowers are shaggy and resemble a small beautiful yellow ball. Popular because of its ruggedness and disease resistance.
- Rudbeckia purple. This variety is a very close relative of echinacea. Powerful shoots reach a height of 1 m. The first inflorescences appear in mid-July, in colder regions - in early August. The flower in diameter can reach up to 10 cm.
- Rudbeckia Cherry Brandy. The stems of this variety are about 0.5 meters high. Flowers of the plant have a cherry color with dark burgundy color. Look great on flowerbeds and are used in landscape design. Cherry Brandy is a one-year or long-term rudbeckia.
- Rudbeckia Toto belongs to the hairy variety. This is a dwarf bush, whose height does not exceed 30 cm. It successfully looks in curb compositions and other flowerbeds.
- Another popular undersized variety is rudbeckia, a brilliant Goldsturm, whose flowers are colored yellow with a dark heart. The grade of Rudbeckia Goldsturm perfectly tolerates weather changes and for a long time pleases with beautiful flowers.
- One of the common hybrids is Gloria Daisy, the height of which does not exceed 70 cm. The original plant for breeding was hairy rudbeckia. Differs abundant flowering, capable of self-seeding.
Rudbeckia Golden Ball
On a note. No less popular among gardeners are varieties such as Rudbeckia Terry Cap, Mocha, Cherokee Sunset, Green Eyes, Gold Flamme, White Swan, Golden Ray, Little Goldstar, Herbston, Vanabalis, Fulgida and others.
It is possible to plant orebeckia by growing seedlings or sowing in open ground. In the latter case, the seeds are sown in May, in colder regions - in early June. By autumn the plant will rise, and it will be possible to plant seedlings in a permanent place. If planting takes place immediately to a permanent place, then next year we can expect abundant flowering.
You can also sow seeds and seedlings at home. Sow in April. At the end of May, it will be possible to plant seedlings on the beds.
Important! The plant is not demanding to the soil, it can grow even on clay soils, but it is still better to choose a fertile area with good lighting.
Note. Rudbeckia is a very unpretentious plant, even a beginner who is not experienced in floriculture can take care of him.
Rudbeckia - very unpretentious plant
Rudbeckia does not belong to capricious cultures, therefore for its good growth rather simple agrotechnical measures:
- Timely watering. The plant loves sunny places, so it is important to monitor the condition of the soil. The occurrence of a period of slight drought on the bushes will not affect. During the period of active growth, watering increases, it will help to get a more abundant flowering.
- Crop. To ensure abundant and long-term flowering, it is required to regularly prune dry inflorescences. For the winter, the bushes are cut off completely, additionally covering the frost with spruce leaves and dry foliage.
- Top dressing. For active growth, it is enough to feed a flower two times per season. Complex mineral fertilizers are applied for the first time (1 tablespoon of Agricola is diluted into a bucket of water and about 3 liters of solution is poured under each bush) in early spring to help form a strong root system. The second feeding is done after 20 days. The ideal composition would be the following: 10 liters of water are taken at 1 tbsp. l nitrofoski and finished fertilizer Ross. Consumption - 3 liters under the bush.
In addition to sowing seeds, for breeding, you can use the method of dividing the bushes. A division is recommended every 5-6 years. An old bush is dug up and divided into parts. Then new plants are seated with a distance.
Important! It is better to engage in reproduction during the period when the plant has already entered the phase of active growth. The ideal time will be early spring or autumn.
Diseases and pests
The advantage of Rudbeck is high immunity to diseases and pest damage. In rare cases, when growing such flowers, you can encounter powdery mildew. With the appearance of white scurf in the form of specks of flour, measures should be taken: treat with 1% solution of colloidal sulfur. It is also advisable to use for the treatment of copper sulfate. On a bucket of water is added 80 gr. facilities.
There are cases of defeat leaf nematode. About its appearance signal brown spots leaves, which, if left untreated, die. The treatment is carried out with special preparations. If the treatment did not save, then all damaged areas are removed and burned.
Important! With proper care for flowers, the risk of developing diseases and pest damage is minimal.
Periodically, the foliage of small shrubs should be checked for the presence of leaf-eating insects.
Rudbeckia is a perennial flower, which will be a worthy decoration of the alpine hills and flower beds. She is very much loved for the fact that she retains her attractive original look in bouquets for a long time.
Types and varieties
Very often, rudbeckia is confused with echinacea, are we being asked - is it the same or not? We explain the difference between these two plants here. Echinacea can be found on sale under the name Rudbeckia purple or pink. Many varieties that are sold under the wrong name of Rudbeckia, for example, “White Swan” - is Echinacea.
Rudbeckia and Echinacea are really very close. In the west, even an extremely fashionable hybrid of these two plants, Echibeckia, has appeared; we have never heard of such a plant.
Echibeckia ‘Summerina Brown Tuin’
- Rudbeckia covering (Rudbeckia amplexicaulis) - annual plant.
- Rudbeckia dissected (Rudbeckia laciniata) - it is this species that became the parent of the famous variety “Golden Ball”, whose name has already even become a common noun.
- Glossy Rudbeckia (Rudbeckia nitida) - Another founder of the mass of hybrid varieties.
- Brilliant rudbeckia (Rudbeckia fulgida) - also became a “source code” for many hybrids.
- Rudbeckia sunflower (Rudbeckia heliopsidis) - rare plant in culture.
- Hairy Rudbeckia (Rudbeckia hirta) - Another species that has given life to many modern varieties (for example, Rudbeckia Herat Cherokee Sunset). It is one of the symbols of the state of Maryland (along with a white oak, a dog retriever, a Baltimore oriole and four more symbols).
- Rudbeckia bicolor (Rudbeckia bicolor) - characteristic two-color flowers.
Photo of Rudbeckia dissected - Rudbeckia laciniata
History and description of rudbeckia
The birthplace of Rudbeckia’s “sun hat” is North America. Cultivated plant was due to the first settlers. For the dark core with a bright "skirt" flower called "Black-eyed Suzanne." Today, under this name is known small-flowered variety.
From the New World, the plant came to Europe, where it successfully caught on. In 1753, the Swedish botanist and physician Karl Linnei gave the scientific definition of Rudbekia L. Thus, he wanted to perpetuate the brilliant people of his time - the father and son Rudbekov.
Depending on the life cycle, rudbeckia can be:
Varieties and varieties of plants vary in height, size of flower, color of petals. Particularly large specimens reach 2 m in height and have a basket in diameter of up to 20 cm. The undersized ones do not grow above half a meter.
The plant is propagated mainly by seeds that ripen in boxes. Perennial forms - by dividing the underground part or cuttings.
Annual Rudbeckia: Hairy and Bicolor
Annuals (biennials) bloom in the summer when they were planted. Usually, they do not reach 90 cm in height, the stems are dense, not prone to lodging. For early flowering, use the seedling method, placing it on the flowerbeds only at the end of May. Sown in July, Rudbeckia will bloom next year. For a good wintering, the plants cover up to the first snow with pine spruce branches.
Hairy rudbeckia - type of low annuals. Sometimes grown as a two-year-old. It is presented by terry and simple grades, and also hybrids. The plant tolerates low temperatures, suitable for cultivation in Siberia. Stems pubescent with stiff fibers, flowers from bright yellow to dark brown. The leaves are large, lanceolate up to 13 cm long. Hirt - defined as a subspecies of rudbeckia shaggy with a rare cherry color. Known varieties:
- Indian summer,
- Cherry Brandy Terry has spectacular red-burgundy petals.
Rudbeckia bicolor. Shrubs plants branch well. Grow up to 70 cm. The name is given for the contrasting color of the petals. Reed flowers are located on inflorescences in two rows. Receptacle, strongly elongated (up to 2 cm) with black tubular flowers. Color in yellow, as well as in purple tones. Flowering lasts until frost. Popular variety - Gerbstwald (low, red-brown reed and black tubular flowers, basket diameter up to 7 cm),
Other types and varieties of annual rudbeckia
- Rudbeckia triloba. Tall view up to 1.4 m. Abundant, but not long blooming. The lower leaves with three lobes, stem - oval, dark green. Grown as an annual.
- Rudbeckia is beautiful (beautiful) - juvenile, after 3-4 years it loses its decorative effect or dies. Long flowering from mid-July to October.
- Rudbeckia is encompassing. Annual bushes up to 0.8 m tall. Color of reed flowers yellow, tubular - dark brown. The leaves are opposite, serrated at the edges.
Rudbeckia is often confused with echinacea. Previously, it was considered as a subspecies of rudbeckia. Some varieties of Echinacea are mistakenly sold under the name "Rudbeckia". For example, Purple, Terry Cap, White Swan - this is Echinacea. Western breeders recently brought a hybrid of these two plants, calling it ekhibekiya. In our region, this is still a completely unknown novelty.
Attention! Rudbeksia can not tolerate moisture and waterlogging roots.
Dissected Rudbeckia. Easy to care tall look up to 2 m. Flower baskets in diameter of about 10 cm. Rhizome horizontal, with small branches. Popular varieties of the species:
- Gold Ball (Golden Ball). Terry and semi-double inflorescences of a pale yellow color. A variety requiring a garter to the support due to brittle stems,
- Goldkvelle (short, terry variety).
Radiant rudbeckia. Low-growth look, not requiring a garter. Varieties of species:
Western Rudbeckia. Sort Black Beauty (Black Beauty). Tall variety up to 1.5 m. Original shape in the form of a dark pyramid, devoid of bright petals.
Giant rudbeckia. Large perennial late flowering. Baskets with a diameter of 19 cm. Differs in frost resistance and drought resistance. Long keeps a fresh look in bouquets.
Rudbeckia glossy. Tall perennial with elongated shiny leaves. Tubular flowers green, reed - yellow. Long flowering (60 days). Varieties of species:
- Goldshire - golden shield (up to 2.5 m tall),
Rudbeckia hybrid. Strong bushes with a height of 0.70 m. They have the largest inflorescences in diameter up to 19 cm. They need updating every 3-4 years. The most common type. Hybrid varieties:
- Mocha (large inflorescences up to 20 cm).
Rudbeckia at your dacha
Rudbeckia is light-requiring; Minor shading of the plot is allowed.
Council Rudbeckia does not tolerate acidic soils, add chalk or crushed dolomite to increase the ph level.
This flower is an excellent decoration of alpine hills, flower beds. Florists love Rudbeck for their ability to maintain an aesthetic appearance in bouquets for a long time. На рудбекию редко посягают вандалы, предпочитая более благородные цветы.
Young plants do not tolerate low temperatures, so the seeds are planted in seedlings in the greenhouse. Perennial species will show themselves in all their glory for 2-3 years of life, annuals will bloom in the first year. For vegetative propagation suitable bushes not younger than two years. Do it in March or in the middle of autumn.
In frosty winters, bushes often freeze out and have to be renewed. Interestingly, the petals, in response to the cold, change their color. Even in late autumn, Rudbeckia will amaze with the bright colors of its bloom.
What is this plant?
Rudbeckia is an annual, biennial or perennial plant belonging to the Astrov family. Stems are straight or slightly branched, they can reach a height of 80 centimeters, although in some species they are longer. Leaves pinnately divided, whole, have a dark green color. The flowers are bright yellow or orange with dark hearts and small petals. They are somewhat reminiscent of small suns, and therefore are often used for garden decoration.
North America is considered the birthplace of the plant, and the first settlers almost immediately turned their attention to these bright flowers, giving them the saying name “Black-eyed Susanna”, which is associated with dark hearts of flowers. After some time, the seeds were brought to Europe, and there the flower began to spread further. The history of the name in the modern version is associated with Karl Linnaeus - a Swedish naturalist who decided to perpetuate the names of his compatriots - the botanists Olof Rudbek and his son Olof Rudbek Jr. (he was a teacher and friend of Charles himself).
There are about forty different types of rudbeckia, the most common and popular ones are dissected, hairy, clinging, shiny, glossy, and also hybrid.
How to grow?
Growing and multiplying a plant can be done in three main ways:
- It is best to grow such a flower from seedlings. Seeds are sown in boxes or other containers (for example, containers or even plastic cups) around the middle of spring, for example, in the first half of April. First you need to fill the ground, then lay the seeds and sprinkle them on top of the soil. Then the earth is moistened, and the containers for creating the greenhouse effect are covered with either glass or film (you can use a plastic bag). When the first shoots begin to break through (this will happen in two weeks), the film should be removed. Then you need to constantly moisturize the soil, then rooting will occur faster, and growth will be active. After warm weather has been established (at the end of May or at the beginning of June in the northern regions), the shoots should be carefully moved to the soil to permanent places.
- Rudbeckia can be grown from seed and immediately in the open field, but it is best done when the risk of frost or a significant decrease in air temperature is minimal. The optimal time is the end of June or the beginning of July. The distance between the holes should be about 25-30 centimeters. Their depth is insignificant, you can simply lay the seeds on the ground, and then sprinkle a loose layer of soil. The first shoots appear usually in the fall, but you can only see flowering next season.
- The division of the bushes. If someone of your friends has a beautiful rudbeckia already growing in the garden, then you can ask for the root cutting. Part of the rhizome is cut off with the kidney either in autumn or spring. Next, the shoot can be placed in the ground, it will quickly get accustomed and take root if you take proper care of it.
Important growing conditions:
- The soil. The plant is not demanding to the ground, but it will feel particularly comfortable in quite nutritious, fertilized and cultivated soils, although it can grow in the poor, but it will not bloom as abundantly as we would like. But if flowers or vegetables have grown in the garden before, the conditions will be optimal. And in order to ensure active growth and abundant flowering, it is necessary to enrich the land with mature compost. If the soil is clay, then to reduce its density, you can use a small amount of sand, then the soil will become more loose and well breathable.
- Lighting is also not a crucial point of content, but it will still affect the development of the plant and its external data. And Rudbeckia, growing in partial shade, is characterized by longer stems. The flowering in this case will begin later, but it will be longer. And still growing in such conditions, the flower will delight delicate shades of buds. If you land a rudbeck in a sunny place (it can develop even under direct rays), then it will not be so high, but brighter.
- Watering should be regular and very abundant, and this is especially important during periods of flowering and active growth, as the volume of water will affect external data. Although short-lived drought rudbeckia is quite able to endure, but still it should not be allowed to dry out of an earthy coma.
- Top dressing. If the soil is sufficiently nutritious, then it should not be further fertilized. But you can still fertilize twice: during active growth, as well as at the stage of formation of the ovary. You can use a complex composition for garden flowering plants. And in order to stimulate the formation of strong buds, use phosphate-potassium fertilizer.
- Crop. In order to preserve the decorative qualities of rudbeckia, it is necessary to regularly prune, removing bloomed buds, as well as dried or weakened shoots. And it should be done often.
- Wintering. If you grow perennial rudbeckia, then it should be prepared for the cold. Although the plant is very cold-resistant, yet the roots can freeze with a significant decrease in temperature. But this can be avoided by cutting the above-ground part in the fall to the very root and covering what is left with dry grass or fir-spruce.
Diseases affect Rudbeckia quite rarely, but still some pests, such as thrips, spider mites or leaf-gnawing caterpillars, beetles, can “attempt” on it.
A few helpful tips for beginners or experienced gardeners:
- In order to minimize the risk of freezing of rudbeckia, it is possible to “harden” the shoots, that is, approximately two weeks before the desired date of planting in the soil, one can begin to gradually reduce the temperature.
- The plant can be used as a one-component beds, and as part of mixborders. So, you can combine it with hydrangea, asters, phlox, delphinium. In addition, it can be a great hedge framing (especially tall varieties).
- If you do not remove the seeds, the rudbeckia can multiply on its own (self-seeding).
Want more sun in the garden? It will help in this bright rudbeckia!
Four dozen varieties of rudbeckia of a multi-year development cycle are currently known, hybrids are more common. There are two-tone red-brown, yellow-orange, many dark-orange and two-year olds.
There are also stunted species (30-35 centimeters), they have a motley color, large flowers. These are bushes of a two-year cycle of development.
Radiant (shiny) rudbeckia
Height 55-60 centimeters, the leaves are long, narrow. Both the leaves and the stem are hard-topped. Inflorescence 8-9 centimeters in diameter has orange marginal, reed petals, tubular dark red in the middle. The middle of the flower basket is convex, brown. Prominent representatives of this species are the varieties Goldstar and Goldsturm.
High grade, more than 2 meters grows in favorable conditions. Strongly kept in the ground, thanks to a highly branched rhizome. Inflorescences located on an erect stem, reach a diameter of 7–10 centimeters and consist of several rows of yellow petals, creating a terry. In the center is lighter, greenish tubular petals. The most widely known plant of this type is the famous Golden Ball.
It is an unusual flower shape - consists of a median cone-shaped inflorescence. Reed has no reed, or they reach 1-2 millimeters. The middle is located on the green cereal. Plant height is quite large - 100-150 centimeters. The original look of this variety gives spice to the bouquet and other composition. It looks unusual, resembles dried flowers. Known new variety of Black Beauty.
Tall, colorful plant. The dark, prominent middle of the tubular petals is surrounded by bright yellow flat flowers. The leaves are green, have a bluish tint. Representatives of this varietal variety are cold-resistant, tolerate drought well. Inflorescences are a beautiful, shearing material.
The bush is under 2 meters high, has smooth, shiny narrow leaves. The color basket of 10-12 centimeters in coverage is represented by yellow-colored flat flowers surrounded by dark green tubular-shaped petals. Noble varieties of the glossy look of Goldshirem and Herbstonn.
Compact half-meter plant with elongated, rounded leaves. The flowers are large, 10 centimeters in coverage. In the middle of the inflorescence tubular shape, dark brownish. Extreme leaflets flat, yellow-orange (three-pointed at the ends).
Breeding name, combining several varieties (glossy, dissected, hairy orebeckia). Hybrids have solid flowers, the size of 19 centimeters. Only the length of reed petals can reach 12-14 centimeters, they are yellowish-brown color. The middle petals are colored purple. Tall varieties of this species are Gloriosa Daisy and Double Daisy.
Often the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea and its variety white swan are ranked as Rudbeckia species. This is a false statement, just the flowers are similar. They belong to the same Astrov family, but are divided into different genders: rudbeckia and echinacea. In addition, the first is not considered as a medicinal plant.
Planting and breeding
This procedure is performed by sowing seeds in an open ground, seedling method and dividing the bush.
Seeds are purchased in a specialty store or collected from dried faded baskets by shaking them off onto thick cloth or paper. Well dried planting material is planted in the ground. Plants grown from such seeds can be significantly inferior in decoration to maternal flowers.
We sow in an open ground
Seed material is sown during the summer, direct sowing in the prepared soil on the bed. Soil requirements: a mixture of compost, peat and sand, or it may be the land that is available. However, more fertile and well-drained soil favors a particularly lush and amicable flowering.
Make small grooves, sow seeds and sprinkle with earth. This perennial bloom next year, and this season will only gain green mass. The advantage of this method is that these seedlings next spring will come to life and begin to bloom sooner than those planted with seedlings.
To get flowering already this year, use a seedling method. Sowing produced in March.
- Container, box or pots filled with soil mixture,
- In the shallow grooves sow the seeds and sprinkle with a thin layer of earth,
- Sprayed with a spray bottle, moisturizing,
- To create a greenhouse effect and better germination cover the containers with a film,
- Shoots will appear in 10-14 days, if necessary - they are seated when there are two true leaves,
- Before planting, the seedlings are hardened, bringing to a cool room,
- Planted in open ground should be in May and June (when frost is bypassed) after the plants reach a height of 15-20 centimeters.
The bushes of Rudbeckia are rather sprawling, marking the place for planting, leave between the bushes an interval from 50 to 100 centimeters, depending on the height of the plant. Some of them need a garter and support.
Division of rhizomes
Starting from spring to late summer, as well as in September, the flower can be transplanted by dividing the bush. For this purpose, use plants that have reached 2 years of age and above. The root of the plant is separated from the stems, leaving buds. Divided parts of the root are planted in a permanent place.
Such a procedure is made at least once every 2-4 years. Otherwise, the flower loses its attractiveness, degenerates.
Care and feeding
- It is better to plant flowers of this type on sunny areas, in the shade it will stretch and bloom later.
- The plant needs watering only in dry time.
- Weeding is done regularly, the soil is loosened.
- Plants with a height of 1 meter and above need a garter, although they have tough stems.
- Faded flowers, dry leaves as they appear, are removed, which favorably affects the tying of new flower stalks.
- Top dressing is made 2 or 3 times per season, with special complex fertilizers, it is useful for flowering and for a better wintering.
- In order for the plant to endure the winter well and not to freeze, in the autumn they produce pruning of the aerial part under the root, leaving a rosette of basal leaves. It is desirable to mulch the landing site. Raking up the shelter in the spring should be careful not to damage the outlet, which will give rise to the growth of new stems.
Keep away from pests and diseases.
Rudbeckia is rarely affected by flower diseases. Sometimes powdery mildew “attacks”. It is possible to get rid of the infected sites by removing the branches, as well as by spraying the plant with a solution of blue vitriol.
Other pests: nematodes, leaf-eating insects are removed with the help of special preparations, as well as folk remedies. You can use infusions of garlic, tobacco dust, celandine. Sick bushes are burned, and the place under them is decontaminated by manganese.
Prevention of problems is the timely watering, loosening and feeding plantings.
Place in the garden
Landings of rudbeckia can disguise unsightly places and abandoned corners of the garden. Everyone knows the golden ball growing in each palisade, and conquering a huge area, forming a yellow, sunny bedspread.
Low-growing hybrids are planted even as a border, fence. The plant looks attractive both in a single form, and group.
Surrounded by other low growth colors, high rudbeckia stands out. It can be planted in the background or in the center of the mixborder.
A good combination is obtained with the colors of blue, pink, red and white color. Cereal plants will also make an excellent company. It is worth remembering, making up the composition, that a spreading bush will grow, and will give shade to its surroundings. Therefore, planted next to the flowers should not be too demanding of lighting.
General information about rudbeckia
The September pilots who proved themselves are already preparing for rest, the bushes replace their bright green "clothes" with scarlet ones. In the flower beds, the aster and chrysanthemum's colorful “dress” still shows. But their pink, burgundy, white, purple petals tremble in the morning - the nights are already cold. And if you, too, chilly - take a look at Rudbeckia - from their brightly colored flowers as if the heat emanates ... In the meantime, I will tell you a beautiful legend about the dwarves and this flower. From the fairy tales we remember that the dwarves are hardworking creatures. Once a friendly family of dwarfs mined gold ore all day. And the dwarfs got tired, they wanted to rest, they decided to leave the mountain of ore until the morning, and then come back for it in order to get it to their places. And went to sleep. But a little later, the woodcutters returning from work went by. Greed overcame their hearts, they threw their wood from carts, filled them with gold ore. When they reached their village, they shared the treasure they had found, each of them left his share near the house. And at night, anxious forebodings woke the gnomes, one of them went to the place where the mined ore was left. Having learned the details from the walker, the dwarves were very upset and angry. It was decided to punish the greedy woodcutters. In the morning, looking out of the windows, the woodcutters did not find wealth. Instead of gold, tall plants grew and swayed their bright yellow "heads" reproachfully. So the villagers began to call these flowers rudbeckies. But this is only a beautiful legend, although in the language of flowers Rudbeckia symbolizes justice. And in fact, the name of these plants was given in 1753 by Karl Linnaeus. So he wanted to perpetuate the glory of the names of his teacher, the Swedish botanist Olaf Rudbek. This man was a professor at the university and taught botany and medicine, made many valuable discoveries.
This plant was brought from North America. Some types of ore bean have been cultivated for many years in almost all countries of the world, and at first they appeared in France and England. Herbaceous plants belong to the large family of Compositae. The genus includes approximately 50 species. Stems usually grow from 0.5 to 2 meters. At the top they branch. Leaves are openwork, cutting. In some species, the flowers look like large daisies with long petals bending down and a large velvet core. And others - there are also terry flowers, for example, the “Golden Ball” - inflorescences reach a diameter of 10 cm. Petals can be pale lemon, intensely yellow, thickly orange, chocolate. Fruits look like shiny, oblong seeds.
"Golden Balls" - Rudbeckia dissected
Несколько десятилетий назад в каждом деревенском палисаднике, а также во дворах новеньких многоэтажек в городах можно было увидеть высокие растения, которые все называли тогда «золотыми шарами». Об этом даже писала в своём стихотворении Лариса Рубальская. Но сейчас этот сорт потеснили более современные. Но в небольших сёлах и деревнях они так и продолжают кивать солнечными «головками» всем, кто проходит мимо палисадника. The scientific name of this species is rudbeckia dissected. This is a terry form of the most unpretentious and high type, besides also a perennial. The stem reaches a height of 2-2.5 meters, pinn-dissected leaves are located at the bottom, and at the top - three-fold. The rhizome is horizontal, long, strongly branched, so “thickets” are quickly created, if not to limit growth. Large baskets adorn the long stalks (up to 10 cm in size) consisting of yellow tubular and reed flowers. The first flowers open in mid-summer, flowering continues until October, more precisely, until the frost. The terry variety, so beloved by our compatriots, was bred in Europe in 1894, called it “Goldball” there.
MirSovetov call and other noteworthy species of this plant:
Hybrid rudbeckia - a shrub about 70 cm, inflorescences can be compared with giant daisies (up to 19 cm), represented by golden-yellow or red-brown tones. Inside there is always a velvety middle. This species has many varieties and is currently gaining popularity.
Rudbeckia is brilliant - it also pleases with lush flowering, but its baskets are smaller. Her leaves are shiny, hence the name.
Rudbeckia is beautiful - it grows up to 60 cm, leaves have oblong, unequal toothed edges. Reed flowers are yellow-orange, with three cloves on them, but tubular brown-black ones. Flowering occurs in mid-summer.
Glossy Rudbeckia - this powerful plant has very strong, high shoots capable of growing up to 2.5 meters. Moreover, they do not need support. Flower baskets are yellow, 12 cm in diameter, most often the heart is convex, greenish. Now two varieties are especially widespread - “Autumn Sun” and “Golden Shield”.
Hairy rudbeckia - its shoots and leaves have a hard pubescence consisting of hairs. Many varieties have been developed that differ in color and degree of terry in inflorescences. The core is usually brownish or purple. Among the famous varieties you will find both stunted (up to 38 cm) - “Toto”, “Maya”, and medium tall and tall, for example “Green eyes”, “Sun of the prairies”. Easily propagated by seed, self-sowing.
Western Rudbeckia - some consider its flowers original, and others - strange, because they look like a dark cone of tubular flowers, reed flowers are missing, there are only bracts. Height is usually 1.5 meters. When wintering in areas with a cold climate may freeze.
Rudbeckia two-colored - annual, forming sprawling bushes. Although some people think that the plant lives for many years. And this opinion is formed because the seeds she does not fly in different directions, but gently fall down, with time they sprout in spring. Often, this species has a dark red or brownish pattern on the petals.
Echinacea purpurea - previously, it also belonged to the genus Rudbecki due to some similarities, but now it is attributed to the genus Echinacea. And yet I will talk about it briefly. It grows up to one meter. Inflorescences are white, purple, pink, crimson, purple.
Where to place rudbeckia?
Based on experience, I would say that it is better to plant rudbeckia along a fence, fence, at the gate or in the background of a flower garden. When planting other flowers, retreat from the rudbecky site, otherwise they will quickly expand and force out “competitors” from their territory. The distance between high species should be at least one meter, and between the rest - about 50 centimeters. All their beauty, they better show in the open, where the sun is. But some species (for example, glossy rudbeckia) can be planted in partial shade. Of course, the soil is preferable fertile, but in ordinary land rudbeckia grows well. Rudbeckia looks wonderful in combination with phloxes, delphiniums, asters, geleniums, coroopsis, hydrangea, and decorative cereals.
These plants love moisture, so watering will be necessary in dry summer so that the rudbeckies do not look sluggish. Tall plants often fall apart after heavy rain so that this does not happen, promptly worry about supports for them or tie them to a hedge.
If you want the Golden Balls to not be so tall, in June, pinch their heads. In this case, the main escape will stop in growth, and the forces will go to the side bushes. Flowering when pinching begins a little later than usual. To the bushes looked neat and to prolong flowering, fade inflorescences prune. Leave them only if you want to get seeds.
Before wintering, the entire above-ground part of the bushes must be cut.
Perennial species are propagated by the usual division of rhizome. Another way - seed. Seedlings must be sown in seedlings in March (or April). Usually shoots are shown after 14 days. Perennials bloom in seed reproduction, wait for the second year. Grown up seedlings planted in the open ground of the flower bed after all the spring frosts have passed.
There is a belief that solar rudbeckia, planted near the house or on the garden plot, bring prosperity and well-being to their owners. And autumn, with their presence, really, feels golden.