Women's Tips

Pulse Oximeter - what is it? Principle of operation and application

While we are young and full of energy, we don’t really want to think about our own health: we blame any slight discomfort for lack of sleep, as well as constant employment and fatigue. Only over time, when the body does not maintain such a pace and begins to declare itself more loudly and aggressively, we understand that with this we need to do something.

Not everyone knows that sometimes diseases appear and develop imperceptibly, and poor oxygen saturation or saturation can be the cause.

Rarely, who thinks and controls this parameter, and after all its poor performance can witness the development of dangerous and very serious diseases: the development of diabetes, the emergence of blood clots, a general violation of blood circulation, disorders of the heart and nervous system.

The first signs of inadequate levels of saturation are frequent headaches, dizziness, fainting, decreased concentration and performance of the brain.

Naturally, with such signs of indisposition, the quality of life is significantly reduced, such symptoms prevent fruitful work and rest, enjoy hobbies and the ordinary course of life, because at every moment, a sick person may need medical help. How to avoid such problems?

It's simple: health should be monitored from the youth, and a special device, a useful novelty in the field of medical devices, a pulse oximeter are very suitable for measuring the level of oxygen in the blood. This small device, which was designed to quickly measure the level of oxygen, should be in the pocket of anyone with similar health problems.

What is it and what is it used for?

With the help of this modern diagnostic device it is possible to determine the amount of oxygen in arterial blood, as well as the heart rate, in just 2-3 seconds.

More complex variations of devices may contain an additional number of functions, but the basic meaning remains unchanged: it determines the number of hemoglobin molecules to which the oxygen molecules should have joined. It is believed that the blood is saturated with oxygen in the event that 4 molecules of oxygen have joined each hemoglobin molecule. These readings are usually calculated as a percentage and displayed on the screen, the rate is 95-100%.

Such devices are widely used by therapists, their indicators are important for making more accurate diagnoses, in addition, they are popular among athletes and all those who are fond of heavy loads in sports.

Using a pulse oximeter, it is convenient to monitor the general state of the body during exercise, which allows it to be made more efficient and productive.

Such devices are actively used to analyze the work of the human respiratory system, for a general study of the work of the lungs, as well as for diagnosing diseases such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, chronic lung disease and many others.

Also, a pulse oximeter is used during anesthesia, for careful monitoring of newborn babies, which were born as a result of heavy labor.

Operating principle

This, at first glance, simple and small device, as it turned out, has a rather complicated principle of operation. If to describe in a nutshell, the pulse oximeter consists of several main parts: a sensor with LEDs (two different waves - infrared and red), a microprocessor and a display.

The sensors are configured in a special way, in the process of turning on the device, they emit light that passes through the tissue and is absorbed by the blood. The degree of absorption will directly depend on the degree of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in the blood.

All data are processed by the microprocessor and fed to the display in the form of digital values ​​or graphs. Usually, the device remembers the previous values, which allow you to study the entire history of the disease clearly.

What are the?

Pulse oximeters are of two main types: stationary and portable. The first ones are mainly used in the conditions of medical institutions, outwardly they differ from portable ones and are equipped with special remote sensors.

Portable devices are essential for people with high risks of daily attacks in any place, because they can easily be carried in a pocket or handbag.

In addition, they are used to monitor the condition of the patient during forced transport. They can boast of their compactness and relatively low price. Most often they are equipped with a built-in sensor, they can be both household and professional.

Principles of modern pulse oximetry

It has long been proven that the amount of oxygen in the blood affects the health of a person and his general well-being. To measure and clarify this indicator, a diagnostic method such as pulse oximetry is used.

This examination method helps to determine the amount of oxygen contained in arterial blood. This is one of the most important factors influencing a person’s metabolism and, consequently, on his quality of life. If there is a lack of oxygen, then the person’s livelihood is deteriorating.

Pulse oximetry does not imply the determination of changes in the level of oxygen, but denotes its amount in hemoglobin. For the study used a special device - a medical pulse oximeter. It is a sensor attached to the ear lobe or the patient’s finger and connected to a computer. This method is considered to be of sufficient quality and reliable, therefore, it is widely used to conduct examination of patients.

What is a pulse oximeter

What is it - a pulse oximeter and how it is used, it is of interest to many patients who want to independently monitor their health. Thanks to such a modern diagnostic device, it is possible to determine the oxygen content in arterial blood in a few seconds.

More advanced complex models of devices have additional functions, but the basic principle of the device remains unchanged. The best indicator is considered for each molecule of hemoglobin - 4 air molecules. These data are mainly calculated as a percentage, and the rate is 95-100%. According to the OKOF classification, the pulse oximeter belongs to the category of medical and surgical equipment.

Such devices are used by the doctor during therapy, and their indicators are required for making an accurate diagnosis. In addition, they are in demand among athletes who are fond of heavy loads. Thanks to this device it is very convenient to exercise control over the general state of the body during training, which allows it to be made more productive.

How is the pulse oximeter used

Many patients are interested in what a pulse oximeter is and how to use this device correctly. It is worth noting that it is fairly simple to use, but working with it, you need to follow certain rules in order to get the most reliable result.

Before using the device, you need to check the battery charge level. If it is low, then the battery needs to be recharged. You need to wait for a few seconds, turning on the device, while he will conduct a self-test.

Mount the sensor on the finger so that the fixation is reliable, but there is no excessive pressure. The finger nail, on which the pulse oximeter sensors are attached, must be completely clean, without varnish, since its presence may distort the result.

It is necessary to wait 5-20 seconds while the device processes the received data and displays the received data. In some cases, the pulse oximeter may produce an incorrect result, like any other electronic device, which is why you need to additionally check them in a clinical way.

What are the types of pulse oximeters

What is a pulse oximeter, and what types of devices are there - many patients ask this question. There are such types of devices as:

  • stationary,
  • lap,
  • on the shoulder,
  • sleep monitors.

Stationary devices are used in hospitals, they are characterized by a significant memory reserve and it is possible to connect to the monitoring station. They are supplemented with a variety of different sensors, so they can be used to examine patients of different ages.

The most popular models are shoulder or portable versions that have a minimum weight, but at the same time are not inferior in functionality to stationary devices.

Pulse oximeter

Oxygen is the source of life on Earth. Every cell in our body needs it at every moment in time. Its deficiency entails serious health consequences: disruption of the brain, problems with memory and speech, diseases of internal organs. In severe cases, oxygen deprivation leads to death. Pulse oximetry helps to determine the level of oxygen saturation. In this method, pulse oximeters are used, which quickly and accurately show the amount of this element in arterial blood. Such equipment allows time to prevent the development of hypoxia, improve the patient's condition, and sometimes save his life.

The essence of pulse oximetry

We need oxygen for metabolism, without it the body cannot synthesize ATP - the main energetic substance. When we inhale, air enters the lungs, from here through the network of capillaries it is transported throughout the body.

As a rule, ambient air consists of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and the rest. A healthy body from such air can get enough oxygen. But when the environment is polluted, in industrial zones and large cities, the composition of the atmosphere does not change for the better, the share of carbon dioxide and nitrogen increases. As a result, people develop chronic oxygen starvation, constant fatigue, cardiovascular defects, drowsiness and lethargy.

Also, the body does not receive the required amount of O2 in diseases of the respiratory system, blood vessels and the heart. The main cause of these diseases are improper nutrition, snoring, lack of exercise, and bad habits. If untreated, chronic lack of oxygen leads to more serious disturbances, even death. Therefore, a section for pulse oximetry has appeared in medicine, which is dedicated to monitoring arterial blood oxygen saturation. The average percentage of saturation is called the saturation index, normally it is 95-98%. With a decrease to 94%, the patient is prescribed treatment, with an indicator below 91%, emergency medical care is required.

  • with oxygen therapy,
  • after operations
  • during anesthesia,
  • for monitoring in chronic diseases (for the prevention of hypoxia),
  • in neonatology to look after premature babies,
  • in obstetrics and pediatrics.

Thanks to technical progress today, patients can measure their saturation independently. To do this, you need to buy a portable pulse oximeter and learn how to use it.

How does a pulse oximeter

Pulse oximeters are of several types:

  • stationary - dimensional equipment that is used in operating rooms, in the intensive care unit,
  • belt - portable devices,
  • wrist - used by athletes (heart rate monitor),
  • on the shoulder - you can use outpatient, as well as lap,
  • sleep monitors - used in case of failures of the respiratory system during sleep.

A pulse oximeter is a portable or stationary apparatus for measuring the saturation index. It consists of a sensor and a monitor. The sensor is attached to the ear lobe, finger or wing of the nose. The sensor has a source of infrared and red light, these sources serve two beams that pass through the fabric. Depending on how well hemoglobin is saturated with O2, the length of the light beam that it absorbs varies. The detector registers the light that is not absorbed.

Data is quickly processed and displayed on a pulse oximeter monitor. In addition to the level of saturation, the device shows the pulse. Some models record heartbeat data as a graph and give a signal during hypoxia.

The most popular are portable copies that patients can use at home, such small-sized devices provide accurate data on blood oxygen saturation.

All pulse oximeters have a memory, the results can be transferred to a computer. This is especially convenient for those who conduct measurements at home, the findings can be brought to the doctor for verification.

Neonatal pulse oximeter is used for newborns. This is the same device as for adults, but with a cuff sensor, which is made of soft material, is attached to the foot and does not interfere with the child. For older children use the same sensors as adults, but smaller. There are also portable copies for children and adults, in which the sensor is built into the monitor, to obtain data you only need to place a finger in the connector and wait for the result.

When choosing your own pulse oximeter, be sure to consult a doctor (general practitioner, cardiologist). The doctor will tell you exactly what type of device is suitable (disposable or reusable), which pulse data can be considered normal, in which case to consult a doctor. After the acquisition you need to read the instructions.

Instructions for use

Pulse Oximeter is easy to use at home, it is a simple and clear device. Its main advantage is that in order to obtain data it is not necessary to take blood from a patient, for example, before this could be done only in laboratory conditions. Modern measuring devices do not require invasions, which makes them more accessible. They are disposable or reusable, the latter are particularly relevant for those patients who are undergoing oxygen therapy. Thus, a person independently controls the level of O2, and in case of poor results, he may consult a doctor.

Portable devices operate on a pair of AA batteries, some of them are charged from the mains. It is possible to measure the saturation and heart rate index with the help of relatives or independently, the device is also used for people in a difficult and unconscious state. Important rules of application:

  1. Before using, you need to look at the level of charge, which is reflected on the monitor. If the charge is too low, the data may be distorted. Also, the sensor is better to wipe off the dust with a dry cloth.
  2. After turning on the device, it will load. You can wear the sensor after 1-2 minutes. Avoid sources of bright light and electromagnetic radiation, as this affects the outcome.
  3. An important condition for correct data is immobility during the process. This does not apply to neonatal sensors. A pulse oximeter is attached to the ear (a pin-shaped sensor), nose, or finger. For the fingers it is imperative that the nail and finger are clean, without varnish, as this affects the result.
  4. After connecting the device, you need to wait up to 25 seconds, at this time it is better not to move.
  5. The monitor displays heart rate and O2 levels in hemoglobin.

After that, do not leave the device turned on, it must be turned off, folded and removed away from direct sunlight and moisture. We have considered a classic example of using the device, except it has a technology for measuring the saturation in a dream.

Measurement in a dream

Night pulse oximetry is needed when stopping or difficulty breathing at night. This picture is often found in diseases of the thyroid gland, obesity, hypertension, pathology of the lungs and the heart. Against the background of such problems, a person suffers from a breathing disorder in a dream, because of this, in the morning there is weakness, confusion, drowsiness, bad mood, dizziness. The danger lies in the fact that during sleep in these patients may be fatal.

According to the symptoms described, the doctor suspects a lack of oxygen during sleep, monitoring is necessary to confirm suspicions.

Checking the degree of O2 saturation occurs at night with the help of wrist devices, they are used in the hospital of a hospital or at home. Such a device consists of a sensor on the finger and a belt at the wrist, the patient puts it on before going to bed. You do not need to turn on the device, it turns on itself - 30,000 times a night. As a rule, the verification period lasts from 10 pm to 8 am.

Here, too, has its own rules:

  • the patient must sleep in a comfortable environment, the temperature of the room is 20-23 degrees,
  • before bedtime it is forbidden to eat too much, drink tea and coffee,
  • you can not take sleeping pills,
  • Before starting the screening, you need to put a diary before the bed
  • in the diary all the moments when the patient woke up are noted: time, painful sensations,
  • In the morning, the sensor is removed, the time of lifting and sensation is recorded in the diary.

Pulse Oximeter and diary are given to the attending doctor. For accurate findings, you will need to undergo additional tests: ultrasound, tests, examination by a cardiologist or other specialists. Based on these studies, the diagnosis is determined, and treatment is prescribed.

Результаты: нормы и отклонения

Нормой содержания кислорода для здорового человека считается не менее 95%, показания выше 98% требуют перепроверки. Pulses in adults are normal at 60-90 beats per minute. In newborns, this figure reaches 140 beats, with age, the heart rate slows down and in adolescence is compared with an adult. Like any electronic device, the pulse oximeter can be wrong.

For example, readings less than 90% with normal well-being indicate a malfunction of the device, it is better to check it for a charge. It is also impossible to consider the data that constantly change dramatically in large ranges. If the monitor first 98%, and then 91% - the device is faulty.

If the monitor shows 94% - an urgent need to consult a doctor. Patients with chronic hypoxia, the doctor makes recommendations about safety measures and first aid. If there are none, you need to call an ambulance. If the readings are even lower, during the call you need to inform that you need urgent (not just an ambulance) help. Treatment always involves the treatment of the underlying disease, that is, the elimination of the problem that caused the lack of O2 in the body.

To quickly alleviate the condition and save the patient, use oxygen therapy - a method of treatment with oxygen. Most often, treatment is carried out through a mask or nasal cannula, through which the useful gas flows.

It is possible to undergo such therapy in a hospital or on an outpatient basis. In hospitals, masks, special cameras and tubes are used. The same can be done at home if there is an oxygen concentrator.

A hub is a small device that produces pure O2 molecules from the surrounding air. These molecules are additionally moistened so as not to overdry the airways. Optionally, you can connect it to a mask or cannula, some types of concentrators even make oxygen cocktails. Such portable equipment is recommended for people with chronic diseases, families with pregnant women and small children.

Where to buy it

Before buying, you should consult a doctor, you may not need such a device. There are situations when it is necessary to measure the level of saturation only a few times, in this case, you can go through the procedure with a cardiologist or a therapist. If you still need a pulse oximeter, you can buy it online and in major pharmacies. Of course, it is better to give preference to pharmacies, here you can get a guarantee on the product and make a claim if they appear. The price of the device with a sensor for a finger is 20-30 dollars. Devices of a class "lux" will cost 60-85 dollars, they have removable sensors, signal notification, built-in memory, they can be used for the whole family. Neonatal costs from $ 35 and up.

We learned that a pulse oximeter is a portable device for quickly measuring the oxygen content of blood. Such a device helps to prevent the effects of hypoxia in time, to check the effectiveness of treatment. Patients can independently check indicators; on the basis of the data obtained, doctors choose treatment tactics. It is convenient, fast and very important for health.

Specifications for this device:

Colour: The black

Material: ABS plastic

Display: LED light

The boundaries of the definition of SPO2: 35 - 99%

Limits of pulse determination: 30 - 250BPM

Resolution: 1% SpO2, 1bpm for pulse

Accuracy: + / - 2% (70% - 99%) for SPO2, + / - 2BPM or + / - 2% for heart rate.

Optical sensor: Waves of the red range 660nm, infrared waves 880nm

Dimensions: D: 58 x W: 32 x 34 (mm)

Nutrition: Two AAA alkaline batteries (not included)

Power consumption: Two 1.5V AAA, 600mAh alkaline batteries can be used continuously for 30 hours (i.e. keep the device turned on)

What you liked: automatic shutdown when not used for 5 seconds, low battery indicator, sufficient measurement accuracy, light and compact size, and of course the price.

What did not like: It is advisable to test the device to ensure that the measurements are correct. Lack of batteries included with the device.

To test the device: measure palpation of the pulse on the radial artery and calculate the heart rate at the apex of the heart. Match this data with the instrument data.

In my case, the difference was minimal - about the same as in the specifications.

Why do I need a pulse oximeter?

Pulse Oximeter is useful in the diagnosis:

Lung diseases associated with respiratory failure (COPD, bronchial asthma, pulmonary edema, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis)

Heart diseases with severe hemodynamic disorders in the large and small circles of blood circulation (CHF, AMI, AHF, arrhythmias, decompensated heart defects, cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, pericarditis)

Blood diseases (iron deficiency and hemorrhagic anemia)

And this is not a complete list.

And also climbers, mountain skiers, pilots use it. Since when lifting to a higher altitude, the partial pressure of oxygen decreases and oxygen starvation occurs.

At this point I want to finish the review of this device.

Very soon I will post a video review of this pulse oximeter.

If you have questions - write them in the comments below.

Principle of pulse oximetry

Depending on how saturated hemoglobin is with oxygen, the length of the light wave that it can absorb is changing. This principle is based on the action of a pulse oximeter consisting of a light source, sensors, a detector and an analyzing processor.

The light source emits waves in the red and infrared spectrum, and the blood absorbs them, depending on the number of hemoglobin bound oxygen molecules. Associated hemoglobin captures the infrared stream, and non-oxygenated - red. Unabsorbed light is recorded by the detector, the unit calculates the saturation and outputs the result to the monitor. The method is non-invasive, painless, and it takes only 10-20 seconds to complete.

Today, two methods of pulse oximetry are used:

With transmissionpulse oximetry the luminous flux penetrates the tissue, therefore, in order to obtain saturation indicators, the emitter and the sensing sensor must be placed on opposite sides, between them is the fabric. For the convenience of the study, sensors are placed on small areas of the body - finger, nose, auricle.

Reflected Pulse Oximetry involves the registration of light waves that are not absorbed by oxygenated hemoglobin and are reflected from the tissue. This method is convenient for use in various parts of the body where it is technically impossible to position sensors opposite each other, or the distance between them will be too great for recording light fluxes - the abdomen, face, shoulder, forearm. The possibility of choosing the location of the study gives a great advantage of reflected pulse oximetry, although the accuracy and information content of both methods is about the same.

Non-invasive pulse oximetry has some drawbacks, including changing work in bright light, moving objects, the presence of dyes (nail polish), the need for accurate positioning of sensors. Errors in the readings can be associated with improper imposition of the device, shock, hypovolemia in a patient when the device cannot catch the pulse wave. Carbon monoxide poisoning may even show 100% saturation, while hemoglobin is saturated not with oxygen, but CO.

Applications and indications for pulse oximetry

The “body” of food and water is provided in the human body, but oxygen is not stored in it, therefore, within a few minutes from the moment of its cessation, irreversible processes begin, leading to death. All organs suffer, and to a greater extent - vital.

Chronic disorders of oxygenation contribute to deep trophic disorders, which affects the state of health. Headaches, dizziness, drowsiness appear, memory and mental activity are weakened, and prerequisites for arrhythmias, heart attacks, hypertension appear.

The doctor is always “armed” with a stethoscope and tonometer at the reception or during the examination of the patient, but it is good to have a portable pulse oximeter with you, because the definition of saturation is of great importance for a wide range of patients with pathology of the heart, lungs, blood system. In developed countries, these devices are used not only in clinics: general practitioners, cardiologists, pulmonologists actively use them in their daily work.

Unfortunately, in Russia and other countries of the post-Soviet space, pulse oximetry is performed exclusively in the intensive care units, in the treatment of patients who are a step away from death. This is due not only to the high cost of the apparatus, but also to the insufficient awareness of the doctors themselves about the importance of measuring the saturation.

The definition of blood oxygenation is an important criterion of the patient's condition during anesthesia, transportation of seriously ill patients during surgical operations, therefore, it is widely used in the practice of anesthesiologists and resuscitators.

Premature newborns, which due to hypoxia have a high risk of damage to the retina of the eye and lungs, also need pulse oximetry and constant monitoring of blood saturation.

In therapeutic practice, pulse oximetry is used in the pathology of the respiratory organs with their insufficiency, sleep disorders with respiratory arrest, suspected cyanosis of various etiologies, in order to monitor the treatment of chronic pathology.

Indications for the conduct of pulse oximetry consider:

  • Respiratory failure, regardless of its causes,
  • Oxygen therapy,
  • Anesthesia during operations,
  • The postoperative period, especially in vascular surgery, orthopedics,
  • Deep hypoxia in the pathology of internal organs, blood systems, congenital anomalies of erythrocytes, etc.,
  • Probable sleep apnea syndrome (respiratory arrest), chronic night hypoxemia.

Night Pulse Oximetry

In some cases, it becomes necessary to measure the saturation at night. Some conditions are accompanied by respiratory arrest, when the patient is asleep, which is very dangerous and even threatens death. Such nighttime bouts of apnea are not uncommon in individuals with a high degree of obesity, pathology of the thyroid gland, lungs, and hypertension.

Patients suffering from respiratory disorders in a dream complain of night snoring, poor sleep, daytime sleepiness and feeling of lack of sleep, interruptions in the heart, headache. These symptoms suggest the possibility of hypoxia during sleep, which can only be confirmed with the help of a special study.

Computer pulse oximetry, carried out at night, takes many hours, during which the saturation, pulse, pulse wave pattern is monitored. The device determines the concentration of oxygen per night up to 30 thousand times, keeping in memory each indicator. It is not necessary for the patient to be in the hospital at this time, although this is often required by his condition. In the absence of risk to life from the underlying disease, pulse oximetry is carried out at home.

Sleep pulse oximetry algorithm includes:

  1. Fixing the sensor on the finger and the perceiver on the wrist of one of the hands. The device turns on automatically.
  2. Throughout the night, the pulse oximeter remains on the arm, and every time the patient wakes up, it is recorded in a special diary.
  3. In the morning, having woken up, the patient removes the device, and the diary gives to the attending physician for the analysis of the obtained data.

Analysis of the results is carried out for the period from ten o'clock in the evening to eight in the morning. At this time, the patient should sleep in a comfortable environment, with an air temperature of about 20-23 degrees. At bedtime, taking sleeping pills, coffee and tea is excluded. Any action - awakening, medication, headache - is recorded in the diary. If during sleep a reduction in saturation is established to 88% and below, then the patient needs long-term oxygen therapy at night.

Indications for night pulse oximetry:

  • Obesity, starting with the second degree,
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with respiratory failure,
  • Hypertension and heart failure, starting with the second degree,
  • Myxedema.

If a specific diagnosis has not yet been established, the signs that indicate possible hypoxia, and, consequently, cause pulsoximetry, will be: night snoring and respiratory arrest during sleep, shortness of breath at night, sweating, sleep disturbances with frequent waking up, headache and feeling fatigue.

Saturation rates and deviations

Pulse oximetry is aimed at determining the oxygen concentration in hemoglobin and the pulse rate. The saturation norm is the same for an adult and a child and is 95-98%in venous blood - usually within 75%. A decrease in this indicator indicates a developing hypoxia, an increase is usually observed during oxygen therapy.

When the figure reaches 94%, the doctor must take urgent measures to combat hypoxia, and the critical value is the saturation of 90% and below, when the patient needs emergency care. Most of the pulse oximeters emit sound signals at unfavorable indicators. They react to a decrease in oxygen saturation below 90%, the disappearance or slowing of the pulse, and tachycardia.

The measurement of saturation relates to arterial blood, because it is she who carries oxygen to the tissues, so the analysis of the venous bed from this position does not seem to be diagnostically valuable or expedient. With a decrease in the total blood volume, a spasm of the arteries, the indicators of pulse oximetry may change, not always showing actual saturation figures.

The pulse to the resting state in an adult varies between 60 and 90 beats per minute, in children the heart rate depends on age, so the values ​​will be different for each age category. In newborn babies, it reaches 140 beats per minute, gradually decreasing as they grow into adolescence to the norm of an adult.

Depending on the intended location of the pulse oximetry, the devices can be stationary, with sensors on the hands, for night monitoring, belt. Stationary pulse oximeters are used in clinics, have many different sensors and store a huge amount of information.

As portable devices, the most popular are those in which the sensors are fixed on the finger. They are easy to use, do not take up much space, can be used at home.

Chronic respiratory failure against the background of the pathology of the lungs or the heart appears in the diagnoses of many patients, but the oxygenation of the blood is not the focus of attention. The patient is prescribed all sorts of drugs to combat the underlying disease, and the question of the need for long-term oxygen therapy remains out of discussion.

The main method for diagnosing hypoxia in the case of severe respiratory failure is to determine the concentration of gases in the blood. At home and even in the clinic, these studies are usually not carried out, not only because of the possible lack of laboratory conditions, but also because doctors do not prescribe them to “chronicles”, which are long observed on an outpatient basis and remain stable.

On the other hand, having fixed the fact of the presence of hypoxemia with the help of a simple pulse oximeter device, the therapist or cardiologist could easily refer the patient to oxygen therapy. This is not a panacea for respiratory failure, but an opportunity to prolong life and reduce the risk of sleep apnea with death. The tonometer is known to everyone, and the patients themselves use it actively, but if the prevalence of the tonometer was the same as that of a pulse oximeter, then the frequency of detecting hypertension would be many times lower.

In time prescribed oxygen therapy improves the patient’s well-being and prognosis of the disease, prolongs life and reduces the risks of dangerous complications, therefore pulse oximetry is the same necessary procedure as measuring pressure or pulse rate.

A special place is occupied by pulse oximetry in overweight subjects. Already in the second stage of the disease, when a person is still called "chubby" or simply very well-fed, serious breathing disorders are possible. Stopping him in a dream contributes to sudden death, and relatives will be perplexed, because the patient could be young, well-fed, rosy-cheeked and quite healthy. Determining sleep saturation in obesity is a common practice in foreign clinics, and the timely administration of oxygen prevents the death of overweight people.

The development of modern medical technologies and the emergence of devices available to a wide range of patients help in the early diagnosis of many dangerous diseases, and the use of portable pulse oximeters is already a reality in developed countries, which is gradually coming to us, so I would like to hope that soon pulse oximetry will be the same common as the use of a tonometer, blood glucose meter or thermometer.

How to measure correctly

You can purchase a pulse oximeter in Moscow in specialized stores of medical equipment and pharmacies. Before you start using the device, you need to read the instructions. It is important to remember that it is desirable to carry out measurements in darkened rooms, and the person must be in a static state.

Чтобы устройство показывало наиболее точный результат, при проведении измерений обязательно должна быть полная зарядка аккумулятора, а при надобности прибор можно подключить к сети. Датчики преимущественно надеваются на палец, иногда прикрепляются за мочку уха. Результат можно получить буквально через несколько секунд.

Основные плюсы изделия

Pulse oximeter has a lot of advantages, among which there are such as:

  • it is possible to measure without connecting external sensors,
  • has a compact size and low weight
  • It is possible to assess the state of the nervous system and blood vessels.

Thanks to the display brightness control function, it is possible to significantly save battery power. The presence of several modes of displaying the received information on it allows you to easily adjust the device for the highest possible level of convenience of measurement.

Due to the built-in sensor, it is possible to measure the level of oxygen in the blood under any conditions. Since there is a function to determine the heart rate, it is possible to designate the limit of physical activity.

Pulse oximetry limitation

In critically ill patients, this device is not able to accurately determine the level of oxygen in hemoglobin. There are certain disadvantages of this product, among which there are such as:

  • the presence of a pulse wave
  • inaccuracy
  • Bright light and various movements may interfere with measurement.

Disturbance of the obtained results can be provoked by a heart rhythm disorder. The age, sex and condition of the person have almost no influence on the examination.

If during the measurement an alarm sounds, then it is necessary to check the consciousness of the patient. Be sure to check the airway and the presence of a pulse in the central artery.

In addition, many other survey methods can be used.

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