Tsunami - a formidable phenomenon of nature, formed as a result of volcanic eruptions or earthquakes in coastal areas. This is a giant wave that covers the coast for many miles inside. The term “tsunami” is of Japanese origin, it literally means “big wave in the gulf”. It is Japan that most often suffers from the impact of the elements, because it is located in the zone of the Pacific "ring of fire" - the largest seismic belt of the Earth.
A tsunami is formed by shaking up billions of tons of water. Like circles from a stone thrown into the water, the waves scatter in different directions at a speed of about 800 km per hour in order to reach the shore and splash onto it with a huge shaft, destroying everything in its path. And often people in the tsunami zone have a few minutes to leave a dangerous place. Therefore, it is very important to warn residents in time about the threat, not sparing funds for this.
The largest tsunami in Japan
In the spring of 2011, trouble struck the Japanese islands. On March 11, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake occurred off the coast of the country, which led to the emergence of waves up to 33 m in height. In some reports, other figures were noted - water crests reached 40-50 m.
Despite the fact that almost all coastal cities in Japan have dams to protect against tsunamis, this did not help in the earthquake zone. The death toll, as well as those taken to the ocean and missing, has more than 25 thousand people. People across the country anxiously read the lists of earthquake and tsunami victims, afraid to find their loved ones in them.
125 thousand buildings were destroyed, the transport infrastructure was damaged. But the most dangerous consequence was the accident at the nuclear power plant of Fukushima I. It almost led to a global nuclear disaster, especially since radioactive contamination affected the waters of the Pacific Ocean. At the elimination of the accident, not only the Japanese power engineers, rescuers and self-defense forces were thrown. The leading nuclear powers of the world also sent their specialists to help rescue them from an environmental catastrophe. And although now the situation at the NPP has stabilized, scientists still cannot fully assess its consequences.
Tsunami alert services have notified the danger of the Hawaiian Islands, the Philippines and other areas at risk. But, fortunately, their shores were already reached by very weakened waves with a height of no more than three meters.
So, the largest tsunami in the last 10 years happened in the Indian Ocean and in Japan.
Major disasters of the decade
Indonesia and Japan are among the countries where destructive waves occur quite often. For example, in July 2006, a tsunami again formed in Java as a result of a devastating underwater shock. Waves reaching 7-8 m in places swept along the coast, capturing even those areas that were not miraculously hit during the 2004 deadly tsunami. Residents and guests of resort areas again experienced the horror of helplessness before the forces of nature. In total, during the orgy of the elements, 668 people died or went missing, and more than 9,000 asked for medical help.
In 2009, a major tsunami happened in the Samoa archipelago, where nearly 15-meter waves swept through the islands, destroying everything in their path. The number of victims was 189 people, mostly children, who were on the coast. But the operational work of the Tsunami Warning Center in the Pacific Ocean made it possible to avoid even greater human losses, allowing people to be evacuated to safe places.
The largest tsunami in the last 10 years occurred in the Pacific and Indian oceans off the coast of Eurasia. But this does not mean that such disasters can not happen in other areas of the globe.
Lessons of the past
The largest tsunami in the last 10 years has shown the fragility of life and everything that was created by man in front of the raging elements. But they also allowed to understand the need to coordinate the efforts of many countries to prevent the most terrible consequences. And in most of the areas affected by the tsunami, work has been arranged to warn the population about the danger and the need for evacuation.
Indian Ocean, December 26, 2004
The Indian Ocean did not remain calm that day. First, the whole of Southeast Asia was frightened by a terrible earthquake that lasted for almost 10 minutes and had a magnitude of more than 9 points. It began near the island of Sumatra. This earthquake caused a terrible and destructive tsunami, whose actions killed more than 200,000 people.
A huge wave swept across the Indian Ocean at a speed of about 800 km / h and caused irreparable damage to all coastal regions. The first to suffer were Sumatra and Java, then Thailand was on the way of the tsunami. A few hours later, the waves hit Somalia, India, Maldives, Bangladesh and other countries. Maldives, for example, were almost completely under water, as they do not rise much above sea level. These islands were saved by coral reefs, which assumed the main force of the tsunami. Then the wave struck a crushing blow to the African coast, where several hundred people suffered from the elements.
Tsunami due to the eruption of the volcano Krakatoa, 1883
The awakening in 1883 of the volcano Krakatau brought terrible consequences. Its eruption caused the destruction and death of people in the nearby islands of Sumatra and Java. The first eruption shocked the population of the islands, but no one could have imagined how it would lead to victims. The second eruption caused not only a monstrous explosion, but also a giant wave. In the blink of an eye, she destroyed the cities of Anyer and Marc and swept 295 villages into the ocean.
Killed more 35 thousand people, and hundreds of thousands of people were left without shelter. The wave was of such strength that the Dutch warship could lift to a height of 9 meters. Several times she went and around the globe. The consequences of the tsunami were felt by all the coastal cities of the world, although not on such a scale as the islands directly next to the volcano Krakatau.
The terrible consequences of the tsunami in Japan horrified the whole world. An earthquake of 9 points even got an official name, and the height of tsunami waves averaged 11 meters. Sometimes the waves reached 40 meters in height. It is even difficult to imagine the destructive effect of a tsunami of such enormous power. The wave literally in minutes penetrated into the country, sweeping settlements from its path and throwing cars and ships to the sides.
Killed 25 thousand people, as many have been reported missing. The echoes of the disaster have even reached Chile. Not without an environmental disaster - because of the terrible tsunami, the nuclear power plant was destroyed. This caused severe radiation contamination, and a territory of 20 km around the power plant became an exclusion zone. At least 50 years will now be needed by the Japanese, which will eliminate all the consequences of the accident.
Papua New Guinea, July 17, 1998
The next earthquake ended here with a terrible catastrophe that claimed thousands of lives. It initiated a strong underwater landslide that caused a tsunami. There were three huge waves in total and they moved one after the other with a short period of time. The greatest destruction occurred in the lagoon of Sissano.
Killed more than 2,000 people, and even more people left without shelter. Hundreds of people are missing. The water washed away all the coastal villages, and after the disaster 100 square meters. m. of the coast went under the water, forming a large lagoon. There was a lot of controversy about what happened, because it was possible to warn people about the catastrophe (the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center was aware of the possibility of a tsunami), and the local residents themselves, knowing about the danger, did not hide. Some even specially went to look, from where such noise was heard.
Chile, May 22, 1960
The earthquake and the tsunami that followed it caused enormous damage to the Chilean coast. About a thousand people died in a small fishing village that was in the way of the tsunami, and the port of Ankund was completely washed off the coast. Eyewitnesses say that the water in the sea first rose, and then began to leave the coast, forming a huge wave. Many residents decided to try to escape by stepping out into the ocean in boats. Approximately 700 people left their homes in the hope of avoiding disaster, but none of them returned. Then the wave, having fun off the coast of Chile, went further into the ocean. There she washed away a huge stone building from the shores of Easter Island and reached the Hawaiian Islands.
In Hawaii, it destroyed and swept most of the buildings and cars into the ocean. 60 people died. California has suffered too, 30 ships have sunk here, and several hundred gallons of fuel have fallen into the water. Uncontrolled, the tsunami hit Japan. Then a real catastrophe broke out - 122 dead and thousands of buildings washed away in the sea. According to some information, 5 thousand buildings were destroyed in Japan. A few days later, a new misfortune happened in Chile - 14 volcanoes “awoke”.
Nature, unfortunately, can not be controlled and trained. Natural disasters often can not be prevented, but you can be prepared for them. You should also know how to act, being a participant in such a disaster. The main thing is to be able to concentrate and not panic, and, of course, no one has canceled assistance to other victims.
1. Alaska, 1958
Alaskans still remember the date July 9, 1958. For the fjord Lituya in the north-east of the Gulf of Alaska, this day became fatal. On this day, there was a powerful earthquake of magnitude 9.1 points, which shook the surrounding mountains and caused the collapse of a part of the mountain in the sea, which was the direct cause of the tsunami. The rockfall lasted until the evening, a landslide from a height of 910 meters dragged down blocks of ice and huge fragments of rocks. Then it was estimated that about 300 million cubic meters of rock had moved into the bay. As a result, part of the bay of the bay was filled with water, and a giant landslide moved to the opposite bank, destroying the forests on the coast of Faruether.
This giant landslide caused a cyclopean wave with a height of more than half a kilometer (524 m), which was the tallest man ever recorded. This incredibly powerful stream of water washed the bay of Lita. The vegetation on the slopes of the mountains tore up the roots, grind and carried to the boiling abyss. The spit that separated Gilbert's Bay and the water area of the bay disappeared. After the end of the "doomsday" everywhere there were debris, severe destruction and huge cracks in the ground. As a result of this disaster, approximately 300,000 Alaskans died.
2. Japan, 2011
Just a few years ago, the whole world looked at the numerous shots of the terrible tsunami strike on the Japanese coast. The consequences of this blow, the Japanese will remember for many decades. The two largest lithospheric plates collided at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean, causing a powerful earthquake measuring 9 on the Richter scale, which was about 2 times more powerful than the notorious 2004 earthquake in the Indian Ocean. He was already given the name "the great earthquake of eastern Japan."
20 minutes after the earthquake, a huge wave more than 40 meters high hit the densely populated Japanese coast. It was one of the most powerful waves that rolled on the Japanese islands. As a result, more than 25 thousand people died from the tsunami. But it was only the first powerful blow, after which the second was not immediately visible, the consequences of which will inevitably stretch over decades. The fact is that a tsunami was hit by the Fukushima-1 standing on the shore of the NPP. Her system could not withstand the impact of the elements and failed, as a result of which control over some reactors was lost, up to the melting of their shells. Radioactive substances got into the groundwater and spread outside the station. Now around her for tens of kilometers there is a zone of alienation. As a result of the impact of the tsunami, enormous destruction occurred: 400,000 buildings, railways and highways, bridges, seaports, airports. Japan is still engaged in the restoration of the destroyed coastal infrastructure.
3. Indian Ocean, 2004
The Indian Ocean has prepared a terrible Christmas present for its residents on its coast — a catastrophic tsunami that occurred on December 26, 2004. The cause of the disaster was a powerful underwater earthquake in the Andaman Islands, near the island of Sumatra. As a result of the crustal crust, the bottom there has dramatically and significantly shifted, which generated an unusually strong tsunami wave. True, in the ocean it was only about 60 cm high. At a speed of about 800 km / h it began to move in all directions: to Sumatra, Thailand, the east coast of India and Sri Lanka, and even Madagascar.
8 hours after the tremors, the tsunami hit most of the Indian Ocean coast, and during the day it echoed in other parts of the world. The main blow fell on Indonesia, where a tidal wave hit the densely populated coast, destroying everything man-made there and going deeper into the coast for kilometers.
Almost instantly, tens of thousands of people died. Those who were close to the shore and did not find a high shelter didn’t have a chance to escape, because the water, overwhelmed with debris and garbage, was not over for more than a quarter of an hour, and then inexorably carried its prey to the open ocean.
As a result of this disaster, more than 250 thousand people died, and economic losses are not subject to calculation. Over 5 million coastal residents were forced to leave their homes, 2 million simply did not have it, many people needed help. Many international charitable organizations responded to the catastrophe, sending humanitarian aid by air.
4. Krakatau, Indonesia, 1883
In this fateful year there was a catastrophic eruption of the Indonesian volcano Krakatau, as a result of which the volcano itself was destroyed, and a powerful wave formed in the ocean, which hit the entire coast of the Indian Ocean. The eruption began on August 27th with powerful lava flows. When sea water rushed into the hot mouth of the volcano, there was a huge explosion, literally cutting off two-thirds of the island, the wreckage of which collapsed into the ocean and caused a series of tsunami. There is information that 40 thousand people died from this disaster. Those who lived closer than 500 km from the volcano could not survive. Even in distant South Africa there were victims of this tsunami.
5. Papua New Guinea, 1998
In July 1998, a catastrophe occurred in Papua New Guinea. It all started with an earthquake measuring 7.1 points, which provoked a powerful landslide towards the sea. As a result, a 15-meter wave was formed, which hit the coast, killing more than 200 thousand people at once and leaving many thousands more homeless (in a small bay Varupa sandwiched between the two islands, the Varupa people lived). Then, at intervals of half an hour, two powerful aftershocks occurred, causing huge waves that destroyed all the settlements within 30 kilometers. Near the capital of the state - the city of Rabaupe, the water level in the ocean rose by 6 cm. Although the inhabitants of New Guinea often face earthquakes and tsunamis, they will not recall a tidal wave of such force. A huge wave hid more than 100 square kilometers of the island, keeping the water level at 4 meters.
6. Philippines, 1976
Even less than half a century ago, a small island of Mindanao was located in the Pacific Basin of Cotabato. He was at the southern tip of the picturesque Philippine Islands. The inhabitants of the island enjoyed the paradise conditions of life and did not suspect the threat that hung over them. But a powerful 8-point earthquake happened, which generated a powerful tsunami wave. This wave seemed to cut off the coastline of the island. 5 thousand people who did not find salutary heights were washed away by the water flow, 2.5 thousand people could not be found (obviously, they were carried into the ocean), almost 10 thousand were injured to varying degrees, over 90 thousand people were left homeless open air. For the Philippines, such a catastrophe was the largest.
Scientists have discovered that after the catastrophic earthquake, the islands of Borneo and Sulawesi changed their coordinates. For Mindanao, this day was probably the most devastating in its history.
7. Chile, 1960
The 1960 Chilean earthquake was the most powerful since the man began to record the strength of the shocks. The great Chilean earthquake happened on May 22 and had a magnitude of 9.5. It was accompanied by a volcanic eruption and a catastrophic tsunami. In a number of places, the waves reached a height of 25 meters. After 15 hours, the wave reached the distant Hawaiian Islands, where 61 people died from it, and after 7 hours it hit the coast of Japan, killing 142 people. In general, about 6 thousand people died from this tsunami.
It was after this event that people decided that the danger of a tsunami should be announced throughout the ocean, no matter how far it is from the epicenter of the disaster.
8. Italy, 1908
Мощнейшее землетрясение Европы породило три волны цунами, в результате катаклизма были полностью уничтожены города Реджо-Калабрия, Мессино и Палми. 15 минут хватило стихии, чтобы уничтожить тысячи зданий, а вместе с ними и культурные ценности, и уникальные памятники истории Сицилии. Что касается погибших, то есть только приблизительная оценка их числа – от 70 тысяч до 100 тысяч человек, хотя есть предположения, что жертв было в 2 раза больше.
9. Курильские острова, 1952 г.
7-балльное землетрясение на Курилах вызвало цунами, которое стёрло с лица земли Северо-Курильск и ряд посёлков рыбаков. At that time, residents did not yet know what a tsunami was, and after a jolt they returned to the houses, where they were covered by a 20-meter wave. Those who survived the first wave, covered the second and third. Total victims of ocean attacks were 2300 people. As it was then accepted in the USSR, they kept silent about the catastrophe, but found out about it decades later. The city itself after this moved higher. But this tragedy prompted the creation of a tsunami warning system in the USSR, as well as a more active development of oceanology and seismology and scientific research in this area.
10. Japan, 1707
Of course, there were many tsunamis in Japan for its long history. It is no coincidence that the very term "tsunami" was coined by the Japanese. Back in 1707, an earthquake measuring 8.4 points struck Osaka and caused a wave height of 25 meters. But the first wave was followed by several more weak, though no less destructive elemental shocks. As a result, 30 thousand people were killed.
10. Earthquake and tsunami in Alaska, 1964
March 27, 1964 was Good Friday, but the Christian day of worship was interrupted by an earthquake of 9.2 points - the strongest ever recorded in North American history. Subsequent tsunamis wiped out the western North American coastline from the face of the earth (also hitting Hawaii and Japan), causing the death of 121 people. The waves were recorded up to 30 meters high, and the 10-meter tsunami erased the tiny Alaskan village of Chenega.
9. Samoa Earthquake and Tsunami, 2009
In 2009, the Samoan Islands experienced an earthquake of magnitude 8.1, at 7:00 on September 29th. A tsunami of up to 15 meters followed, plunging for miles inland, engulfing villages and causing widespread destruction. 189 people died, many of them children, but they avoided further death because of the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, which gave people time to evacuate to the high ground.
8. 1993, Hokkaido Earthquake and Tsunami
On July 12th, 1993, an earthquake of 7.8 points occurred 80 miles from the coast of Hokkaido, Japan. The Japanese authorities responded quickly, issuing a tsunami warning, but the small island of Okushiri was outside the relief zone. Already minutes after the earthquake, the island was covered with giant waves - some of which reached 30 meters in height. 197 tsunami victims from 250 were residents of Okushiri. Although some were saved thanks to the memories of a 1983 tsunami that hit the island 10 years earlier, causing a quick evacuation.
7. 1979, Tumaco and Tsunami Earthquake
At 8:00 on December 12th, 1979, an earthquake measuring 7.9 points began near Colombia and the Pacific coast of Ecuador. The tsunami that followed destroyed six fishing villages and most of the city of Tumaco, as well as several other Colombian coastal cities. 259 people died, while 798 were injured, and 95 were missing.
6. 2006, earthquake and tsunami in Java
On July 17, 2006, a 7.7 magnitude earthquake shook the seabed near Java. A 7-meter-high tsunami crashed into the Indonesian coast, including 100 miles of the Java coast, which was not successfully hit by the 2004 tsunami. The waves penetrated more than a mile inland, comparing the settlements of Pangandaran and the seaside resort with the land. At least 668 people died, 65 died, and more than 9,000 demanded medical attention.
5. 1998, Papua New Guinea earthquake and tsunami
An earthquake of 7 points struck the northern coast of Papua New Guinea on July 17, 1998, without itself causing a strong tsunami. However, the earthquake caused a large underwater landslide, which in turn produced waves 15 meters high. When the tsunami hit the coast, it caused at least 2,183 deaths, 500 missing, and made approximately 10,000 people homeless. Numerous villages were severely damaged, while others, such as Arop and Varapu, were completely destroyed. The only positive thing was that it gave scientists a valuable understanding of the threat of underwater landslides and unexpected tsunamis that they could cause, which would save lives in the future.
4. 1976, the earthquake of the gulf Moreau and tsunami
Early in the morning, August 16th, 1976, the small island of Mindanao in the Philippines was hit by an earthquake with a force of at least 7.9. The earthquake caused a huge tsunami that hit 433 miles of the coastline, where residents did not realize the danger and did not have time to escape to the high ground. In all, 5,000 people died and another 2,200 were missing, 9,500 injured and more than 90,000 residents homeless. Cities and regions throughout the Northern Celebes Sea region of the Philippines were devastated by the tsunami, which is considered among the worst natural disasters in the country's history.
3. 1960, Valdivia Earthquake and Tsunami
In 1960, the world experienced the strongest earthquake since tracking such events. On May 22nd, the Great Chilean Earthquake of 9.5 points started off the southern coast of central Chile, causing a volcanic eruption and a devastating tsunami. In some areas, the waves reached 25 meters in height, while the tsunami also swept across the Pacific Ocean, approximately 15 hours after the earthquake struck Hawaii and killed 61 people. Seven hours later, the waves hit the coast of Japan, causing the death of 142. A total of 6,000 died.
2. 2011 Tohuku Earthquake and Tsunami
While all tsunamis are dangerous, the 2011 Tohuku Tsunami, which hit Japan, has one of the saddest consequences. On March 11th, waves of 11 meters were recorded after 9.0 earthquakes, although some reports mention terrifying heights of up to 40 meters with waves traveling 6 miles inland, as well as a whopping 30-meter wave that crashed into the coastal city Ofunato. Approximately 125,000 buildings were damaged or destroyed, transport infrastructure suffered heavy losses. Approximately 25,000 people died, and the tsunami also damaged the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant, causing a disaster of the International Nuclear Scale. The full effects of this nuclear disaster are still unclear, but radiation was detected 200 miles from the station.
Here are some videos showing the destructive power of the elements:
1. 2004, Indian Ocean and Tsunami Earthquake
The world was stunned by the deadly tsunami that hit the countries surrounding the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004. The tsunami was the deadliest occurrence, with more than 230,000 casualties, affecting people in 14 countries with the most affected in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India and Thailand. A strong submarine earthquake had a magnitude of up to 9.3 points, and the deadly waves it caused reached 30 meters high. Massive tsunami flooded some coastlines within 15 minutes, and some as much as 7 hours after the initial earthquake. Despite the time available to prepare for the effects of waves in some places, the lack of a tsunami warning system in the Indian Ocean has caused most coastal zones to be caught off guard. However, some places were saved thanks to local signs and even the knowledge of children who learned about the tsunami at school. With photos of the effects of the tsunami in Sumatra, you can find in a separate collection.
See also video:
Continue to read also about the most terrible man-made disasters in the world.
1. Sumatra (Indonesia), December 24, 2004
At the end of December 2004 off the coast of Sumatra, at a depth of about 30 km, there was a powerful tremor with a magnitude of 9.1, caused by the vertical displacement of the seabed. As a result of the seismic event, a large wave was formed with a width of about 1,300 km, which, as it approached the coast, reached a height of 15 meters. The giant wall of water collapsed on the shores of Indonesia, Thailand, India, Sri Lanka and several other countries, leaving behind from 225,000 to 300,000 dead. Many people were carried to the ocean, so the exact numbers of deaths are unlikely to be known sometime. According to general estimates, the damage from the disaster amounted to about 10 billion US dollars.
2. Northwest Pacific Coast (Japan), March 11, 2011
In 2011, on March 11, a huge 10-meter wave, moving at a speed of 800 km / h, swept the east coast of Japan and led to the death or disappearance of over 18,000 people. The reason for its appearance was a magnitude 9.0 earthquake that occurred at a depth of 32 km east of Honshu Island. About 452,000 Japanese survivors were moved to temporary asylum. Many live in them to this day. The earthquake and tsunami caused an accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant, after which significant radioactive releases occurred. The total damage amounted to 235 billion dollars.
3. Lisbon (Portugal), November 1, 1755
An earthquake of magnitude 8.5, which occurred in the Atlantic, caused a series of three huge waves that covered the Portuguese capital and a number of coastal cities of Portugal, Spain and Morocco. In some places, the height of the tsunami reached 30 meters. The waves crossed the Atlantic Ocean and reached Barbados, where their height was 1.5 meters. Overall, the earthquake and subsequent tsunamis killed about 60,000 people.
4. Krakatau (Indonesia), August 27, 1883
The eruption of the volcano Krakatau in 1883 was one of the largest in the modern history of mankind. The explosions of the giant were so powerful that they caused high waves that flooded the surrounding islands. After the volcano split and collapsed into the ocean, the largest tsunami measuring 36 meters high was formed, destroying over 160 villages on the islands of Sumatra and Java. Of the more than 36,000 people killed during the eruption, more than 90% of people were victims of the tsunami.
5. Nankaido (Japan), September 20, 1498
According to general estimates, the earthquake that shook the islands in southeast Japan had a magnitude of at least 8.4. The seismic event led to a tsunami that hit the Japanese provinces of Kia, Awaji and the coast of the island of Shikoku. The waves were strong enough to tear down the isthmus, which had previously separated Lake Haman from the ocean. Flooding was observed throughout the historical region of Nankaido, and the death toll reached, presumably, from 26,000 to 31,000 people.
6. Nankaido (Japan), October 28, 1707
Another devastating tsunami caused by an earthquake of magnitude 8.4, rushed to the Japanese Nankaido in 1707. The height of the wave was 25 meters. Damage to settlements on the coast of Kyushu, Shikoku and Honshu, was damaged and the large Japanese city of Osaka. The catastrophe led to the destruction of more than 30,000 homes and the death of about 30,000 people. It is estimated that on that day in just 1 hour about a dozen tsunamis hit Japan, some of them traveled several kilometers deep into the islands.
7. Sanriku (Japan), June 15, 1896
An earthquake of magnitude 7.2, caused by a shift of lithospheric plates in the area of the Japan Trench, led to a tsunami in the north-eastern part of Honshu Island. After the earthquake, two waves poured into the Sanriku region one after another, rising to a height of 38 meters. Since the arrival of water coincided with the tide, the damage from the disaster was incredibly high. Over 2200 people died and over 9,000 buildings were destroyed. The tsunami reached Hawaii, but here their height was much less - about 9 meters.
8. Northern Chile, August 13, 1868
The tsunami in northern Chile (at that time off the coast of Arica in Peru) was caused by a series of two large earthquakes of magnitude 8.5. Waves up to 21 meters high flooded the entire Asia-Pacific region and reached Australian Sydney. The water hit the shores for 2 or 3 days, which eventually led to the death of 25,000 people and to damage in the amount of $ 300 million.
9. Ryukyu (Japan), April 24, 1771
Boulders thrown out by the tsunami
An earthquake of magnitude 7.4 caused a tsunami that flooded many Japanese islands. Ishigaki and Miyako suffered most of all, where the wave height reached from 11 to 15 meters. The disaster resulted in the destruction of 3,137 homes and the death of about 12,000 people.
10. Ise Bay (Japan), January 18, 1586
Ise Bay today
The earthquake that caused the tsunami in Ise Bay on the island of Honshu received a magnitude of 8.2. The waves rose to a height of 6 meters, causing damage to human settlements on the coast. The city of Nagahama suffered not only from water, but also from fires that broke out after the earthquake and destroyed half of the buildings. The tsunami in the gulf killed more than 8,000 people.